Acta Oceanologica Sinica

, Volume 34, Issue 5, pp 22–28 | Cite as

Effects of interannual salinity variability on the dynamic height in the western equatorial Pacific as diagnosed by Argo

Article

Abstract

In this paper, interannual variations of the ocean dynamic height over the tropical Pacific are diagnosed using three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields from Argo profiles, with a focus on the effects of interannually varying salinity on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. The diagnostic analyses clearly demonstrate a significant and large role that the salinity field plays in modulating the sea surface dynamic height (SSDH) in the western tropical Pacific. In particular, the contribution of the interannually varying salinity to the interannual variations in SSDH approximately equals to that of the interannually varying temperature. Over the western equatorial Pacific, the salinity variability was responsible for a 30% to 40% reduction in SSDH anomaly in opposition to the thermal build up in SSDH anomaly, providing an important contribution to modulating the seasonal-to-interannual evolution of the tropical Pacific Ocean and affecting the developing of ENSO events.

Key words

salinity effect SSDH ENSO Argo western tropical Pacific 

References

  1. Bosc C, Delcroix T, Maes C. 2009. Barrier layer variability in the western Pacific warm pool from 2000 to 2007. J Geophys Res, 114(C6): C06023, doi: 10.1029/2008JC005187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cravatte S, Delcroix T, Zhang Dongxiao, et al. 2009. Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific warm pool. Clim Dyn, 33(4): 565–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Delcroix T, Cravatte S, McPhaden M J. 2007. Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970. J Geophys Res, 112(C3): C03012, doi: 10.1029/2006JC003801 Google Scholar
  4. Delcroix T, Hénin C. 1991. Seasonal and interannual variations of sea surface salinity in the tropical Pacific ocean. J Geophys Res, 96(C12): 22135–22150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eldin G, Rodier M, Radenac M H. 1997. Physical and nutrient variability in the upper equatorial Pacific associated with westerly wind forcing and wave activity in October 1994. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44(9–10): 1783–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fedorov A V, Pacanowski R C, Philander S G H, et al. 2004. The effect of salinity on the wind-driven circulation and the thermal structure of the upper ocean. J Phys Oceanogr, 34(9): 1949–1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gill A E. 1982. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Cambridge: Academic Press, 662Google Scholar
  8. Hackert E, Ballabrera-Poy J, Busalacchi A J, et al. 2011. Impact of sea surface salinity assimilation on coupled forecasts in the tropical Pacific. J Geophys Res, 116(C5): C05009, doi: 10.1029/2010JC006708 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hosoda S, Ohira T, Nakamura T. 2008. A monthly mean dataset of global oceanic temperature and salinity derived from Argo float observations. JAMSTEC Rep Res Dev, 8: 47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang Boyin, Mehta V M. 2005. Response of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans to interannual variations in net atmospheric freshwater. J Geophys Res, 110(C8): C08008, doi: 10.1029/2004JC002830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kessler W S, Taft B A. 1987. Dynamic heights and zonal geostrophic transports in the central tropical Pacific during 1979–84. J Phys Oceanogr, 17: 97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maes C. 2000. Salinity variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 1993–98 period. Geophys Res Lett, 27(11): 1659–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maes C. 2008. On the ocean salinity stratification observed at the eastern edge of the equatorial Pacific warm pool. J Geophys Res, 113(C3): C03027, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maes C, McPhaden M J, Behringer D. 2002. Signatures of salinity variability in tropical Pacific Ocean dynamic height anomalies. J Geophys Res, 107(C12): SRF 13-1–SRF 13–13Google Scholar
  15. Maes C, Picaut J, Belamari S. 2005. Importance of salinity barrier layer for the buildup of El Niño. J Climate, 18(1): 104–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murtugudde R, Busalacchi A J. 1998. Salinity effects in a tropical ocean model. J Geophys Res, 103(C2): 3283–3300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Picaut J, Ioualalen M, Menkes C, et al. 1996. Mechanism of the zonal displacements of the Pacific warm pool: Implications for ENSO. Science, 274(5292): 1486–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Press W H, Teukolsky S A, Vetterling W T, et al. 1992. Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 994Google Scholar
  19. Sato K, Suga T, Hanawa K. 2004. Barrier layer in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Geophys Res Lett, 31(5): L05301, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018590 Google Scholar
  20. Sato K, Suga T, Hanawa K. 2006. Barrier layers in the subtropical gyres of the world's oceans. Geophys Res Lett, 33(8): L08603, doi: 10.1029/2005GL025631 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Xie Shangping, Deser C, Vecchi G A, et al. 2010. Global warming pattern formation: Sea surface temperature and rainfall. J Climate, 23(4): 966–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhang Ronghua, Busalacchi A J. 2009. Freshwater flux (FWF)-induced oceanic feedback in a hybrid coupled model of the tropical Pacific. J Climate, 22(4): 853–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang Ronghua, Wang Guihua, Chen Dake, et al. 2010. Interannual biases induced by freshwater flux and coupled feedback in the tropical Pacific. Mon Wea Rev, 138(5): 1715–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang Ronghua, Zheng Fei, Zhu Jieshun, et al. 2012. Modulation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation by freshwater flux and salinity variability in the Tropical Pacific. Adv Atmos Sci, 29(4): 647–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zheng Fei, Zhang Ronghua. 2012. Effects of interannual salinity variability and freshwater flux forcing on the development of the 2007/08 La Niña event diagnosed from Argo and satellite data. Dynam Atmos Oceans, 57: 45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zheng Fei, Zhang Ronghua, Zhu Jiang. 2014. Effects of interannual salinity variability on the barrier layer in the western-central equatorial Pacific: A diagnostic analysis from Argo. Adv Atmos Sci, 31(3): 532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zheng Fei, Zhu Jiang. 2008. Balanced multivariate model errors of an intermediate coupled model for ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation. J Geophys Res, 113(C7): C07002, doi: 10.1029/2007JC004621 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng Fei, Zhu Jiang. 2010. Coupled assimilation for an intermediated coupled ENSO prediction model. Ocean Dyn, 60(5): 1061–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Oceanography and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Center for Climate and Environment Science (ICCES)Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Meteorological CenterBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Research on Marine Hazards ForecastingNational Marine Environmental Forecasting CenterBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations