Acta Oceanologica Sinica

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 62–69 | Cite as

Isolation and diversity analysis of heterotrophic bacteria associated with sea anemones

  • Zongjun Du
  • Wanyi Zhang
  • Hongjie Xia
  • Guoqiang Lü
  • Guanjun Chen
Article

Abstract

A study was undertaken to investigate the heterotrophic bacterial flora associated with the sea anemones. Samples of the sea anemones Anthopleura midori were collected from the coast of Weihai and bacteria were isolated from these samples. Additionally, high numbers of viable bacteria were obtained from the celom wall and surface of anemone, the community of cultivable bacteria was very diverse. As a result of this isolation, 60 strains were obtained, 56 of them were selected for identification and characterization by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and limited phenotypic testing. Among these isolates, 16 strains were phylogenetically related to members of the genus Pseudoalteromonas and neighboring taxa. Other isolates included members of the genera Colwellia, Vibrio, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Endozoicomonas, Roseovarius, Paracoccus, Loktanella, Leisingera, Sulfitobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Plantibacter, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Joostella, Psychroserpens, Cellulophaga, Krokinobacter, Polaribacter and Psychrobacter. Seven potential novel species were found. Among 60 strains, 17 of them can produce proteolytic exoenzyme, 20 can produce lipolytic exoenzyme. Strain NQ8 has strong antagonistic effects on some Vibrio strains. This study demonstrates that the culturable fraction of bacteria from the sea anemones Anthopleura midori is diverse and appears to possess much potential as a source for the discovery of novel bioactive materials.

Key words

Anthopleura midori Bacterial diversity 16S rRNA gene Phylogeny Identification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blunt J W, Copp B R, Hu W P, et al. 2007. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep, 24: 31–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Devereux R, He S H, Doyle C L, et a1. 1990. Diversity and origin of desulfovibrio species: phylogenetic definition of a family. Journal of Bacteriology, 172(7): 3609–3619Google Scholar
  3. Dieckmann R, Graeber I, Kaesler I, et al. 2005. Rapid screening and dereplication of bacterial isolates from marine sponges of the sula ridge by intact-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (ICM-MS). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 67: 539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fry N K, Warwick S, Saunders N A, et al. 1991. The use of 16S ribosomal RNA analyses to investigate the phylogeny of the family Legionellaceae. J Gen Microbiol, 137(5): 1215–1222Google Scholar
  5. Gauthier G, Gauthier M, Christen R. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rRNA sequences and division of the genus Alteromonas into two genera, Alteromonas (Emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 45: 755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gosink J J, Woese C R, Staley J T. 1998. Polaribacter gen. nov., with three new species, P. irgensii sp. nov., P. franzmannii sp. nov. and P. filamentus sp. nov., gas vacuolate polar marine bacteria of the Cytophaga — Flavobacterium — Bacteroides group and reclassification of ‘Flectobacillus glomeratus’ as Polaribacter glomeratus comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 48: 223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo Xiuchun, Zheng Li, Cui Zhisong, et al. 2008. Antibacterial activity of sponge associated marine bacterium Pseudalteromonas sp. NJ6-3-1 regulated by quorum sensing. Acta Microbiologica Sinica (in Chinese), 48(4): 545–550Google Scholar
  8. Haygood M G, Schmidt E W, Davidson S K, et al. 1999. Microbial symbionts of marine invertebrates: opportunities for microbial biotechnology. J Molec Microbiol Biotechnol, 1(1): 33–43Google Scholar
  9. Hentschel U, Schmid M, Wagner M, et al. 2001. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the Med-iterranean sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 35(3): 305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Janda J M, Abbott S L. 2007. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory: pluses, perils, and pitfalls. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(9): 2761–2764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Labrenz M, Collins M D, Lawson P A, et al. 1999. Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 49: 137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ma Yuexin, Yu Shubo, Li Jun, et al. 2007. Antibacterial activities of epiphytic bacteria from the surfaces of seaweeds and invertebrates against fouling bacteria isolated from a net cage in coastal sea in Dalian. Journal of Dalian Fisheries University (in Chinese), 22(1): 11–15Google Scholar
  13. Piel J. 2004. Metabolites from symbiotic bacteria. Natural Product Reports, 21: 519–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Proksch P, Edrata R A, Ebel R. 2002. Drugs from the seas—current status and microbiological implications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 59: 125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Quan Zhexue, Xiao Yiping, Roh S W, et al. 2008. Joostella marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the East Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 58: 1388–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmidt E W, Obraztsova A Y, Davidson S K, et al. 2000. Identification of the antifungal peptide-containing symbiont of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as a novel δ-proteobacterium, “Candidatus Entotheonella palauensis”. Marine Biology, 136: 969–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Thompson F L, Iida T, Swings J. 2004. Biodiversity of Vibrios. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 68(3): 403–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Unson M D, Holland N D, Faulkner D J. 1994. A brominated secondary metabolite synthesized by the cyanobacterial symbiont of a marine sponge and accumulation of the crystalline metabolite in the sponge tissue. Marine Biology, 119: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Urakami T, Araki H, Oyanagil H, et al. 1990. Paracoccus aminophilus sp. nov. and Paracoccus aminovorans sp. nov., which utilize N,N-dimethylforma mide. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 40: 287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N, Fiala-Medioni A, et al. 1995. A methanotrophic carnivorous sponge. Nature, 377(6547): 296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ward-Rainey N, Rainey F A, Stackebrandt E. 1996. A study of the bacterial flora associated with Holothuria atra. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 203: 11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Webster N S, Wilson K J, Blackall L L, et al. 2001. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67(1): 434–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wilkinson C R. 1978. Microbial associations in sponges. I. Ecology, physiology and microbial populations of coral reef sponges. Marine Biology, 49: 161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wilkinson C R. 1984. Immunological evidence for the precambrian origin of bacterial symbioses in marine sponges. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Science, 220: 509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xiang Yihui, Su Xiurong, Dong Mingmin, et al. 2006. Isolation, identification and characteristics of bacterium from Sea Cucumber. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology (in Chinese), 6(1): 25–29Google Scholar
  26. Xie Xinqiang, Lin Haipeng, Yan Bing, et al. 2006. Screening of cytotoxic activity of marine animal symbiotic and epiphyte microorganisms against B16 tumor cell. Chinese Journal of Marine Drugs (in Chinese), 25(6): 26–30Google Scholar
  27. Zheng Zhonghui, Chen Lianxing, Huang Yaojian, et al. 1998. Antimicrobial activity of symbiotic and epiphyte microorganisms on marine organisms in intertidal zone of Xiamen. Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait (in Chinese), 17(4): 439–444Google Scholar
  28. Zobell C E. 1941. Studies on marine bacteria: I. The cultural requirements of heterotrophic aerobes. J Mar Res, 4: 42–75Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Oceanography and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zongjun Du
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wanyi Zhang
    • 2
  • Hongjie Xia
    • 2
  • Guoqiang Lü
    • 2
  • Guanjun Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Microbial TechnologyShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.College of Marine ScienceShandong University at WeihaiWeihaiChina

Personalised recommendations