Organisms Diversity & Evolution

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 199–212 | Cite as

Cephalic anatomy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the head of Catops ventricosus (Weise, 1877) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae)

  • Caio Antunes-Carvalho
  • Margarita Yavorskaya
  • Pedro Gnaspini
  • Ignacio Ribera
  • Jörg U. Hammel
  • Rolf Georg Beutel
Original Article


Adult head structures are well known in the coleopteran suborders Archostemata and Adephaga, whereas the available information is very fragmentary in the megadiverse Polyphaga, including the successful superfamily Staphylinoidea. In the present study, the cephalic morphology of the cholevine species Catops ventricosus is described in detail and documented. The results were compared to conditions occurring in other polyphagan lineages, especially staphylinoid and scarabaeoid representatives. Specific external features documented in Catops and potential autapomorphies of Leiodidae include a five-segmented antennal club with a reduced eighth antennomere and the presence of periarticular grooves filled with sensilla on antennomeres 7, 9, and 10. The firm connection of the head and pronotum is possibly an apomorphy of Cholevinae. The monophyly of Cholevinae excluding Eucatopini and Oritocatopini is supported by the apical maxillary palpomere as long as or shorter than the subapical one, and the presence of cryptic pore plates on the surface of these palpomeres—a feature described and documented here for the first time. The internal cephalic structures of Catops are mostly plesiomorphic, as for instance the complete tentorium. The pattern of the muscles is similar to what is found in other staphylinoid taxa. The unusual maxillary muscle “Mx” is likely a groundplan apomorphy of the clade Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeoidea. M. hypopharyngomandibularis (M13) was identified in Catops and is ancestral for Coleoptera, even though it is often missing. The same applies to M. tentoriohypopharyngalis (M42).


Catops Leiodidae Head morphology 3D reconstruction Musculature Staphyliniformia Staphylinoidea 



We are grateful to many members of the Entomology Group (Institut für Spezielle Zoologie and Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, Germany) for their assistance in different stages of this work. The μCT data acquisition was arranged by Lars Möckel and Katharina Schneeberg. Benjamin Fabian and David Neubert kindly supported CAC with the use of Amira and VGStudio software. Special thanks go to Dr. Hans Pohl, who kindly provided training and advice on scanning electron microscopy and made available a rotatable specimen holder. We are also very grateful to Arnaud Faille and Javier Fresneda for kindly providing valuable specimens. The μCT scans were taken at DESY (Hamburg, Germany), which is gratefully acknowledged. The PhD study of CAC as well as his research internship at the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität was funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (2012/19002-0 and 2014/22088-0). PG was also supported by FAPESP (2013/06314-7) and MY by the DAAD, which is also gratefully acknowledged. The stay of IR in the Phyletisches Museum in Jena was funded by a Salvador de Madariaga grant (PRX14/00583). The helpful comments of two reviewers are greatly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caio Antunes-Carvalho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Margarita Yavorskaya
    • 2
  • Pedro Gnaspini
    • 1
  • Ignacio Ribera
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jörg U. Hammel
    • 4
  • Rolf Georg Beutel
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem MuseumFSU JenaJenaGermany
  3. 3.Instituto de Biología Evolutiva (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtGeesthachtGermany

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