Organisms Diversity & Evolution

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 433–444 | Cite as

Historical biogeography of tits (Aves: Paridae, Remizidae)

Original Article

Abstract

Tits (Aves: Paroidea) are distributed all over the northern hemisphere and tropical Africa, with highest species numbers in China and the Afrotropic. In order to find out if these areas are also the centers of origin, ancestral areas were reconstructed based on a molecular phylogeny. The Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction was based on sequences for three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. This phylogeny confirmed most of the results of previous studies, but also indicated that the Remizidae are not monophyletic and that, in particular, Cephalopyrus flammiceps is sister to the Paridae. Four approaches, parsimony- and likelihood-based ones, were applied to derive the areas occupied by ancestors of 75 % of the extant species for which sequence data were available. The common ancestor of the Paridae and the Remizidae inhabited tropical Africa and China. The Paridae, as well as most of its (sub)genera, originated in China, but Baeolophus originated in the Nearctic and Cyanistes in the Western Palearctic. Almost all biogeographic reconstruction methods produced similar results, but those which consider the likelihood of the transition from one area to another should be preferred.

Keywords

Lagrange S-DIVA Weighted ancestral area analysis Mesquite ancestral states reconstruction package Passeriformes 

Supplementary material

13127_2012_101_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (226 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 147 kb)

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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and EvolutionThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und DiversitätGoethe-Universität Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Wildlife Genetics Laboratory, AaranyakGuwahatiIndia

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