Distribution and diversity of the Opheliidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the continental shelf and slope of Iceland, with a review of the genus Ophelina in northeast Atlantic waters and description of two new species

  • Julio ParaparEmail author
  • Juan Moreira
  • Gudmundur V. Helgason
Original Article


The diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the Opheliidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) in Icelandic waters is reviewed based on material collected during the BIOICE project. Nine opheliid species are recorded from Iceland; of these, three were previously reported in the area (Ophelia limacina, Ophelina cylindricaudata and O. acuminata), four are new for Icelandic waters (Ammotrypanella cf. arctica, Ophelina abranchiata, O. helgolandica and Tachytrypane jeffreisii), and two are new to science. Ophelina basicirra sp. nov. is distinguished by having a narrow anal tube with one short proximal anal cirrus in ventral position. Ophelina bowitzi sp. nov. is characterized by the small size of its anterior branchiae, which become larger in the middle and posterior body regions, and by an upwardly bent anal tube that is wide at the base and narrowing distally. The genera Euzonus, Armandia and Polyophthalmus are not represented in the BIOICE samples. The distribution of each species off Iceland is presented; one species is restricted to shallow waters of northwestern fjords, three species are found south of the GIF Ridge, and five species are circumicelandic. Several body characters with taxonomic relevance in some species are reviewed based on SEM images. Furthermore, as a first step towards a future revision of the genus Ophelina Örsted 1843 in North Atlantic waters, the status of each species originally described or subsequently reported from the area is commented on, and a key to the currently valid species is presented. Ophelina longicephala Hartmann-Schröder, 1977, formerly a subspecies of O. delapidans (Kinberg, 1866), is raised to species status.


Annelida Ophelina GIF Ridge Deep sea BIOICE project SEM Taxonomy New species 



This work was partially supported by the research projects Fauna Ibérica VIII: Annelida Polychaeta III (CGL2004-04680-C10-02) and Fauna Iberica IX: Annelida Polychaeta IV (CGL2007-66786-C08-02), Gobierno de España (Spain). Several grants from the European Union’s TMR (Training and Mobility of Researchers) program and the UDC financed several visit of senior author (JP) to the SMC. JP also gratefully acknowledges Synthesis support made available by the European Community—Research Infrastructure Action under the FP6 Structuring the European Research Area (Projects DK-TAF-3118 and SE-TAF-4599) to visit the Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen, and the Swedish Museum of Natural History (Stockholm). D. Eibye-Jacobsen and M.T. Tøttrup (ZMUC) and E. Sigvaldadottir and K. Sindemark (SMNH) are greatly acknowledged for their help during JP stay in both institutions. Special thanks to S. Bragadottir and the rest of the women of the SMC involved in sorting the specimens from the BIOICE samples. The authors wish to thank J. Gil (CSIC Blanes, Spain) by making available to us relevant bibliography, C.A. Högström (Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, Sweden) for sending photographs of the type material of O. nybelini, A. Castro and C. Sueiro (SAIN, UDC) who assisted with the preparation of specimens and use of the SEM, D. Romero (UDC) for the line drawings, N. Sánchez (UDC) and G. Gudmundsson (IMNH) for the maps and J. García-Carracedo for reviewing the English version of the manuscript. Thanks are also due to M. Schüller, D. Eibye-Jacobsen and ODE editors for their helpful comments on an early version of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

13127_2011_46_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (572 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 572 kb)


  1. Aguirrezabalaga, F., Ibáñez, M., & Ros, J. (1992). Taxocenosis anelidianas en el piso circalitoral de la costa vasca. Actas del V Simposio Ibérico de Estudios del Bentos Marino, 2, 149–159.Google Scholar
  2. Augener, H. (1912). Beitrag zur Kenntnis verschiedener Anneliden und Bemerkungen über die nordischen Nephthys-Arten und deren epitoke Formen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 78, 162–212.Google Scholar
  3. Augener, H. (1932). Antarktische und Antiboreale Polychaeten nebst einer Hirudinee. Scientific Results of the Norwegian Antarctic Expeditions, 1927–1928(9), 1–86.Google Scholar
  4. Bellan, G. (1961). Contribution a l’etude de la Polychéte Ophelia bicornis Savigny 1820. Rapports et Procès-verbaux des Réunions de la Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée, 16, 533–550.Google Scholar
  5. Bellan, G. (1964). Contribution a l’étude systématique, bionomique et écologique des Annélides Polychètes de la Méditerranée. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, 49, 1–372.Google Scholar
  6. Bellan, G. (1975). Ophelia rullieri n. sp., Opheliidae (Annélide Polychète sédentaire) des côtes gaspésiennes (Canada). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 100, 421–425.Google Scholar
  7. Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50, 214–231.Google Scholar
  8. Bellan, G., Bellan-Santini, D., & Dauvin, J. C. (1990). Phénétique et phylogénie des Opheliidae (Annélides Polychètes). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris, 310, 175–181.Google Scholar
  9. Bellan, G., & Costa, H. (1987). Deux nouvelles espèces d’Ophelia abranches (Polychaeta, Opheliidae): O. laubieri et O. amoureuxi. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Paris Sér, 4(9), 829–834.Google Scholar
  10. Bellan, G., & Dauvin, J. C. (1991). Phenetic and biogeographic relationships in Ophelia (Polychaeta, Opheliidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 48, 544–558.Google Scholar
  11. Bellan, G., & Picard, J. (1965). Contributions a l’étude des Polychètes de la région Tuléar (République Malgache). I. Ophelia peresi n. sp. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 90, 295–298.Google Scholar
  12. Bellan-Santini, D., Dauvin, J. C., & Bellan, G. (1992). Approche phénétique et phylogénétique des Ophelia (Annelides Polychètes) de Méditerranée occidentale. Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique, Monaco, 9, 67–81.Google Scholar
  13. Blake, J. (2000). Family Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In J. A. Blake, B. Hilbig, & P. V. Scott (Eds.), Taxonomic atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and western Santa Barbara Channel, vol. 7 – The Annelida, Part 4. Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae to Sternaspidae (pp. 145–168). Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  14. Bleidorn, C., Vogt, L., & Bartolomaeus, T. (2003). New insights into polychaete phylogeny (Annelida) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 29, 279–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borowski, C. (2001). Physically disturbed deep-sea macrofauna in the Peru Basin, southeast Pacific, revisited 7 years after the experimental impact. Deep-Sea Research II, 48, 3809–3839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borowski, C., & Thiel, H. (1998). Deep-sea macrofaunal impacts of a large scale physical disturbance experiment in the south east Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II, 45, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brix, S., & Svavarsson, J. (2010). Distribution and diversity of desmosomatid and nannoniscid isopods (Crustacea) on the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe Ridge. Polar Biology, 33, 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broecker, W. S., & Denton, G. H. (1989). The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganizations in glacial cycles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2465–2501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castelli, A., Abbiati, M., Badalamenti, F., Bianchi, C. N., Cantone, G., Gambi, M. C., et al. (1995). Annelida Polychaeta, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, & S. La Posta (Eds.), Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana (pp. 5–45). Bologna: Edizioni Calderini.Google Scholar
  20. Chambers, S. J., & Woodham, A. (2003). A new species of Chaetozone (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from deep water in the northeast Atlantic, with comments on the diversity of the genus in cold northern waters. Hydrobiologia, 496, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cúrdia, J., Carvalho, S., Ravara, A., Gage, J. D., Rodrigues, A. M., & Quintino, V. (2004). Deep macrobenthic communities from Nazaré Submarine Canyon (NW Portugal). Scientia Marina, 68, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dauvin, J. C., & Bellan, G. (1994). Systematics, ecology and biogeographical relationships in the sub-family Travisinae (Polychaeta, Opheliidae). Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, 162, 169–184.Google Scholar
  23. Day, J. H. (1961). The polychaete fauna of South Africa. Part 6. Sedentary species dredged off cape shores with a few new records from the shore. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 44, 463–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Day, J. H. (1967). A monograph on the Polychaeta of southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  25. Day, J. H. (1973). New Polychaeta from Beaufort, with a key to all species recorded from North Carolina. NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC-375. Woods Hole, MA: National Marine Fisheries Service.Google Scholar
  26. Dijkstra, H. H., Warén, A., & Gudmundsson, G. (2009). Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland. Marine Biology Research, 5, 207–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ditlevsen, H. (1929). Polychaeta. Zoology of the Faeroes, 16, 1–83.Google Scholar
  28. Ehlers, E. (1901). Die Polychaeten des magellanischen und chilenischen Strandes. In Festschrift zur Feier des hundertfünfzigjährigen Bestehens der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-physikalischen Klasse (pp. 1–232, pl. I–XXV). Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.Google Scholar
  29. Elías, R., & Bremec, C. S. (2003). First record of the genus Armandia (Opheliidae, Polychaeta) in Argentine waters, with the description of Armandia loboi sp. n. Bulletin of Marine Science, 72, 181–186.Google Scholar
  30. Elías, R., Bremec, C.-S., da Cunha Lana, P., & Orensanz, J. M. (2003). Opheliidae (Polychaeta) from the southwestern Atlantic ocean, with the description of Travisia amadoi n. sp., Ophelina gaucha n. sp. and Ophelina alata n. sp. Hydrobiologia, 496, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eliason, A. (1951). Polychaeta. In H. Pettersson (Ed.), Reports of the Swedish deep-sea expedition 1947–1948. Vol. II. Zoology. Fascicle II (pp. 131–149). Göteborg: Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället i Göteborg.Google Scholar
  32. Eliason, A. (1962). Die Polychaeten der Skagerrak-Expedition 1933. Zoologiska Bidrag från Uppsala, 33, 207–293.Google Scholar
  33. Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series, 28, 1–188.Google Scholar
  34. Fauvel, P. (1914). Annélides Polychètes non pélagiques provenant des campagnes de l’Hirondelle et de la Princesse-Alice. In M. J. Richard (Ed.), Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I er Prince Souverain de Monaco (pp. 1–432). Monaco: Imprimerie de Monaco.Google Scholar
  35. Fauvel, P. (1925). Sur les Ophéliens des cotes de France. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 50, 77–88.Google Scholar
  36. Fauvel, P. (1927). Polychètes sédentaires. Addenda aux errantes, Archiannélides, Myzostomaires. Faune de. France, 16, 1–494.Google Scholar
  37. Gardarsson, A. (1973). Some polychaetes new to the Icelandic fauna. Sérprentun úr Náttúrfrædingurinn, 43, 77–91 [In Icelandic with English summary].Google Scholar
  38. Glasby, C. J., & Read, G. B. (1998). A chronological review of polychaete taxonomy in New Zealand. Journal of Royal Society of New Zealand, 28, 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hansen, B., & Østerhus, S. (2000). North Atlantic-Nordic Seas exchanges. Progress in Oceanography, 45, 109–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hansen, G. A. (1878). Annelider fra den norske Nordhavsexpedition I 1876. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 24, 1–17.Google Scholar
  41. Hansson, H. G. (1998). North East Atlantic Taxa / NEAT*Annelida.*Annelida.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2011.
  42. Hartman, O. (1938). Descriptions of new species and new generic records of polychaetous annelids from California of the families Glyceridae, Eunicidae, Stauronereidae and Opheliidae. University of California Publications in Zoology, 43, 93–111.Google Scholar
  43. Hartman, O. (1959). Catalogue of the polychaetous annelids of the world. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation, 23, 1–628.Google Scholar
  44. Hartman, O. (1965). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic areas. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation, 28, 1–378.Google Scholar
  45. Hartman, O. (1966). Polychaeta Myzostomidae and Sedentaria from Antarctica. Antarctic Research Series, 7, 1–158.Google Scholar
  46. Hartman, O. (1969). Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous annelids from California. Los Angeles: Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  47. Hartman, O., & Fauchald, K. (1971). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic areas, Part II. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology, 6, 1–327.Google Scholar
  48. Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1958). Zur Morphologie der Opheliiden (Polychaeta, Sedentaria). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 161, 84–143.Google Scholar
  49. Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1974). Polychaeten von Expeditionen der “Anton Dohrn” in Nordsee und Skagerrak. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 14, 169–274.Google Scholar
  50. Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1977). Polychaeten aus dem Sublitoral und Bathyal vor der portugiesischen und marokkanischen Küste. Auswertung der Fahrt 8 (1967) von F.S. "Meteor". "Meteor" Forschungs-Ergebnisse D, 26, 65–99.Google Scholar
  51. Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1979). Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der australischen Küsten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Teil I und Teil III. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 76, 75–218.Google Scholar
  52. Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996). Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 58, 1–648.Google Scholar
  53. Hartmann-Schröder, G., & Parker, S. A. (1995). Four new species of the family Opheliidae (Polychaeta) from southern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 28, 1–12.Google Scholar
  54. Hartmann-Schröder, G., & Rosenfeldt, P. (1989). Die Polychaeten der "Polarstern"-Reise ANT III/2 in die Antarktis 1984. Teil 2: Cirratulidae bis Serpulidae. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 86, 65–106.Google Scholar
  55. Helgason, G. V., Gardarsson, A., Svavarsson, J., Adalsteinsdottir, K., & Gudmundsson, H. (1990). Polychaetes new to the Icelandic fauna, with remarks on some previously recorded species. Sarsia, 75, 203–212.Google Scholar
  56. Hutchings, P. (2000). Family Opheliidae. In P. L. Beesley, G. J. B. Ross, & C. J. Glasby (Eds.), Polychaetes & alllies: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula (pp. 76–79). Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Hutchings, P., & Murray, A. (1984). Taxonomy of polychaetes from Hawkesbury River and the southern estuaries of New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 36(suppl. 3), 1–119.Google Scholar
  58. Kinberg, J. G. H. (1866). Annulata nova. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 22, 239–258.Google Scholar
  59. Kirkegaard, J. B. (1996). Bathyal and abyssal polychaetes (sedentary species I). Galathea Reports, 17, 57–78.Google Scholar
  60. Kirkegaard, J. B. (2001). Polychaetes of the families Glyceridae, Goniadidae, and Nereididae from the North Atlantic around Iceland. Sarsia, 86, 13–20.Google Scholar
  61. Kröncke, I. (1998). Macrofauna communities in the Amundsen Basin, at the Morris Jesup Rise and at the Yermak Plateau (Eurasian Arctic Ocean). Polar Biology, 19, 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kükenthal, W. (1887). Die Opheliaceen der Expedition der Vettore Pisani. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 21, 361–373.Google Scholar
  63. Levenstein, R. J. (1978). Annelida (Polychaeta) from the deep waters of the Pacific region of the Antarctic. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P. P. Sirsova / Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 113, 73–88.Google Scholar
  64. Levin, L., & Gooday, A. J. (2003). The Atlantic. In P. A. Tyler (Ed.), Ecosystems of the world: the deep sea (pp. 111–178). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  65. Maciolek, N., & Blake, J. (2006). Opheliidae (Polychaeta) collected by the R/V Hero and the USNS Eltanin cruises from the Southern Ocean and South America. Scientia Marina, 70, 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Malmberg, S.-A., & Valdimarsson, H. (2003). Hydrographic conditions in Icelandic waters, 1990–1999. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 219, 50–60.Google Scholar
  67. Martínez, J., & Adarraga, I. (2001). Distribución batimétrica de comunidades macrobentónicas de sustrato blando en la plataforma continental de Guipúzcoa (golfo de Vizcaya). Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 17, 33–48.Google Scholar
  68. Maurer, D., & Williams, S. (2007). Deep-Sea polychaetous Annelida from Central America to the Antarctic Peninsula and South Sandwich Islands. International Review of Hydrobiology, 73, 659–701.Google Scholar
  69. McIntosh, W. C. (1878). On the Annelida obtained during the cruise of H.M.S. “Valorous” to Davis Strait in 1875. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd Series / Zoology, 1, 499–511.Google Scholar
  70. McIntosh, W. C. (1908). A monograph of the British annelids, vol. 2, pt. 1. Polychaeta. Nephthyidae to Syllidae. London: The Ray Society.Google Scholar
  71. Monro, C. C. A. (1930). Polychaete worms, I. Reports of the “Discovery”. Expedition, 2, 1–122.Google Scholar
  72. Örsted, A. S. (1843). Annulatorum danicorum conspectus. Fasc. 1. Maricolae. Copenhagen (“Hafniae”): Librariae Wahlianae.Google Scholar
  73. Parapar, J. (2003). Oweniidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Icelandic waters, collected by the BIOICE project, with the description of Myrioglobula islandica n. sp. Sarsia, 69, 274–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Parapar, J. (2006). The genera Myriochele and Myrioglobula (Polychaeta, Oweniidae) in Icelandic waters with the revision of type material of Myriochele heeri Malmgren, 1867, and the description of a new species. Journal of Natural History, 40, 523–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parapar, J., Besteiro, C., & Urgorri, V. (1996). Inventario dos poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) de Galicia. Cadernos da Área de Ciencias Biolóxicas (Inventarios). Seminario de Estudos Galegos, 16, 1–178.Google Scholar
  76. Parapar, J., & Moreira, J. (2008). Sobre la presencia del genero Ophelina Ørsted, 1843 (Polychaeta, Opheliidae) en el litoral de la península Ibérica. Nova Acta Científica Compostelana (Bioloxía), 17, 117–134.Google Scholar
  77. Parapar, J., & Moreira, J. (2009). Polychaeta of the ‘DIVA-Artabria I’ project (cruise 2002) in the continental shelf and upper slope off Galicia (NW Spain). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 50, 57–78.Google Scholar
  78. Pettibone, M. (1954). Marine polychaete worms from Point Barrow, Alaska, with additional records from the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 103, 203–356.Google Scholar
  79. Pillai, G. (1961). Annelida polychaeta of Tambalagam Lake, Ceylon. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences), 4, 1–40.Google Scholar
  80. Purschke, G. (2005). Sense organs in polychaetes. In T. Bartholomaeus & G. Purschke (Eds.), Morphology, molecules, evolution and phylogeny in Polychaeta and related taxa. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Rathke, H. (1843). Beiträge zur Fauna Norwegens. Nova Acta der Kaiserlich-Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher. Halle, 20, 1–264.Google Scholar
  82. Riser, N. (1987). Observations on the genus Ophelia (Polychaeta: Opheliidae) with the description of a new species. Ophelia, 28, 11–29.Google Scholar
  83. Rouse, G. (2001). Chapter 8, Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In G. W. Rouse & F. Pleijel (Eds.), Polychaetes (pp. 53–56). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rowe, G., 2010. A provisional guide to the family Opheliidae (Polychaeta) from the shallow waters of the British Isles. Southampton: Emu Ltd.,%202010.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2011.
  85. Rowe, G. T., Polloni, P. T., & Haedrich, R. L. (1982). The deep-sea macrobenthos on the continental margin of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part A, 29, 257–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Salazar-Vallejo, S. I., & Londoño-Mesa, M. H. (2004). Lista de especies y bibliografía de poliquetos (Polychaeta) del Pacífico Oriental tropical. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Serie Zoológica, 75, 9–97.Google Scholar
  87. Sanfilippo, R. (2001). Bathyvermilia islandica (Polychaeta, Serpulidae): new species from the southern Icelandic Sea. Sarsia, 86, 177–182.Google Scholar
  88. Santos, C. S. G., Nonato, E. F., & Petersen, M. E. (2004). Two new species of Opheliidae (Annelida: Polychaeta): Euzonus papillatus sp. n. from a northeastern Brazilian sandy beach and Euzonus mammillatus sp. n. from the continental shelf of southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 478, 1–12.Google Scholar
  89. Sardá, R., Gil, J., Taboada, S., & Gili, J. M. (2009). Polychaete species captured in sediment traps moored in northwestern Mediterranean submarine canyons. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Savigny, J., -C. (1822). Systèmes des annélides, principalement des celles des cotes de l’Egypte et de la Syrie. In: Description de l’Égypte , Histoire Naturelle, vol 1 (3) (ed. M.J.L. Savigny), pp. 1–128, Paris.Google Scholar
  91. Schuchert, P. (2000). Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme. Sarsia, 85, 411–438.Google Scholar
  92. Schüller, M. (2008). New polychaete species collected during the expeditions ANDEEP I, II, and III to the deep Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in the austral summers 2002 and 2005 – Ampharetidae, Opheliidae, and Scalibregmatidae. Zootaxa, 1705, 51–68.Google Scholar
  93. Schüller, M., & Ebbe, B. (2007). Global distributional patterns of selected deep-sea Polychaeta (Annelida) from the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II, 54, 1737–1751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sene-Silva, G. (2007). Filogenia de Opheliidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). PhD thesis. Curitiba: Universidade Federal do Paraná. [available at:]
  95. Sigvaldadóttir, E. (2002). Polychaetes of the genera Prionospio and Aurospio (Spionidae, Polychaeta) from Icelandic waters. Sarsia, 87, 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Southern, R. (1914). Clare Island survey. Archiannelida and Polychaeta. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 31, 1–160.Google Scholar
  97. Støp-Bowitz, C. (1945). Les Ophéliens Norvégiens. Meddelelser fra Zoologiske Museum, Oslo, 52, 21–61.Google Scholar
  98. Støp-Bowitz, C. (1948). Sur les polychètes arctiques des familles des Glycériens, des Ophéliens, des Scalibregmiens et des Flabelligériens. Tromsø Museums Årshefter, 66, 3–58.Google Scholar
  99. Støp-Bowitz, C. (1958). Polihetaj novavoj el Norvegujo. In Sciencaj Studoj (pp. 213–216). Copenhagen (“Kopenhago”): Internacia Scienca Asocio Esperantista.Google Scholar
  100. Tebble, N. (1952). On three species of the genus Ophelia (Polychaeta) from British and adjacent waters. Annals & Magazine of Natural History, Series, 12(5), 553–571.Google Scholar
  101. Tebble, N. (1953). A review of the genus Ophelia (Polychaeta) with descriptions of new species from South African and Californian waters. Annals & Magazine of Natural History, Series, 12(6), 361–368.Google Scholar
  102. Uebelacker, J. M. (1984). Family Opheliidae. In J. M. Uebelacker & P. G. Johnston (Eds.), Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the northern Gulf of Mexico, vol. 3 (pp. 17–1–17–15). Mobile: Barry A. Vittor and Ass., Inc.Google Scholar
  103. Volckaert, F. (1987). Spatial pattern of soft-bottom Polychaeta off Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Biology, 93, 627–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wehe, T., & Fiege, D. (2003). Annotated checklist of the polychaete species of the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf. Fauna of Arabia, 19, 7–238.Google Scholar
  105. Weisshappel, J. B. (2000). Distribution and diversity of the hyperbenthic amphipod family Eusiridae in the different seas around the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe-Ridge. Sarsia, 85, 227–236.Google Scholar
  106. Weisshappel, J. B. (2001). Distribution and diversity of the hyperbenthic amphipod family Calliopiidae in the different seas around the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe-Ridge. Sarsia, 86, 143–151.Google Scholar
  107. Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1950). The Polychaeta of West Greenland with special reference to the fauna of Nordre Strømfjord, Kvane-, and Bredefjord. Meddelelser om Grønland, 151, 5–169.Google Scholar
  108. Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1951). Polychaeta. The Zoology of Iceland, 2, 1–182.Google Scholar
  109. Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1953). The zoology of East Greenland. Polychaeta. Meddelelser om Grønland, 122, 1–169.Google Scholar
  110. Weslawski, J. M., Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M., & Legezynska, J. (2003). Occurrence of soft bottom macrofauna along the depth gradient in High Arctic, 79ºN. Polish Polar Research, 24, 73–88.Google Scholar
  111. Wirén, A. (1901). Ueber die waehrend der schwedischen arktischen Expedition von 1898 und 1900 eingesammelten Anneliden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 24, 253.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julio Parapar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juan Moreira
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gudmundur V. Helgason
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Bioloxía Animal, Bioloxía Vexetal e Ecoloxía, Facultade de CienciasUniversidade da CoruñaA CoruñaSpain
  2. 2.Estación de Bioloxía Mariña da GrañaUniversidade de Santiago de CompostelaFerrolSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Biología (Zoología)Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.Institute of BiologyUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

Personalised recommendations