Organisms Diversity & Evolution

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 43–59 | Cite as

Sympatry in Mantophasmatodea, with the description of a new species and phylogenetic considerations

  • Monika J. B. Eberhard
  • Mike D. Picker
  • Klaus-Dieter Klass
Original Article

Abstract

We describe a new genus of Mantophasmatodea, Viridiphasma gen. n. (Austrophasmatidae), represented by one new species, V. clanwilliamense sp. n. The new species differs from previously described species in features of the male and female postabdomen including the genitalia, in morphometrics and details of colouration. The new species occurs syntopically with another austrophasmatid, Karoophasma biedouwense Klass et al., 2003; this is the first well-documented case of sympatry of two mantophasmatodean species. We therefore survey the morphological differences between these two species, document the absence of any morphological evidence of hybridisation, and also report on differences in life history. While a previous molecular phylogeny using COI and 16S genes ambiguously placed V. clanwilliamense sp. n. near the base of Austrophasmatidae (but not as sister to all other Austrophasmatidae), morphological characters strongly support V. clanwilliamense sp. n. to be the sister taxon of a clade comprising all remaining Austrophasmatidae. This phylogenetic placement challenges the current hypothesis of a linear north-to-south diversification of Austrophasmatidae.

Keywords

Austrophasmatidae Fynbos Morphology Sympatry Syntopy Phylogeny 

Abbreviations

Measurements

antl

antenna length

bodl

body length

emad

distance between eye and mandibular articulation

eyeh

eye height

eyel

eye length

genh

gena height

heaw

head width

iocw

interocular width

msnl

mesonotum length

mtfl

metafemur length

mtnl

metanotum length

mttl

metatibia length

prfl

profemur length

prnl

pronotum length

prnw

pronotum width

prtl

protibia length

t10l

minimum length of tergum X

t10l+

maximum length of tergum X

t10w

width of tergum X

thol

thorax length

Parts of postabdomen

at8

anterior apodeme/tendon of abdominal laterocoxosternum VIII

dpc

dorsal projection of cercus

gp8

gonapophysis VIII

gp9

gonapophysis IX

GP9

sclerotization of gonapophysis IX

IP

sclerite of posterior intervalvula

LS8

abdominal laterocoxosternum VIII (subgenital plate)

PH1–8

phallic sclerites 1–8

phl

phallic hook, long

phs

phallic hook, short

pli

phallic lobe, internal

spb

spermathecal bulb

spt

spermathecal tube

va

vagina

Natural history museums

MTD

Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden

SAMC

South African Museum, Cape Town

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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika J. B. Eberhard
    • 1
  • Mike D. Picker
    • 2
  • Klaus-Dieter Klass
    • 3
  1. 1.Behavioural Physiology, Department of BiologyHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Zoology DepartmentUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  3. 3.Museum für TierkundeSenckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen DresdenDresdenGermany

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