Organisms Diversity & Evolution

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 287–296 | Cite as

Using compensatory base change analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 secondary structures to identify three new species in Paramacrobiotus (Tardigrada)

  • Ralph O. Schill
  • Frank Förster
  • Thomas Dandekar
  • Matthias Wolf
Original ARticle

Abstract

Species within the tardigrade genus Paramacrobiotus could be distinguished via an analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures. Sequences of P. richtersi and four populations previously treated under provisional names (Paramacrobiotus ‘richtersi group’ 1 to 4) from different continents were determined and annotated, and their secondary structures were predicted. A tree based on a combined sequence-structure alignment was reconstructed by Neighbor-Joining. The topology obtained is consistent with a tree based on a distance matrix of compensatory base changes (CBCs) between all ITS2 sequence-structure pairs in the global multiple alignment. The CBC analysis, together with 18S rDNA sequences, physiological, biochemical and biophysical data identified three species new to science that are morphologically indistinguishable from P. richtersi. These are formally described under the names Paramacrobiotus fairbanksi sp. nov., P. kenianus sp. nov., and P. palaui sp. nov.

Keywords

ITS2 Compensatory base change Tardigrada Eutardigrada Cryptic species Species identification 

Supplementary material

13127_2010_25_MOESM1_ESM.doc (133 kb)
Supplementary Table 1(DOC 133 kb)
13127_2010_25_MOESM2_ESM.doc (130 kb)
Supplementary Table 2(DOC 130 kb)

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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph O. Schill
    • 1
  • Frank Förster
    • 2
  • Thomas Dandekar
    • 2
  • Matthias Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoology, Biological InstituteUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Department of Bioinformatics, BiocenterUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany

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