Oxidative stress-dependent contribution of HMGB1 to the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in diabetic rat liver
- 459 Downloads
The progression of oxidative stress, resulting cell damage, and cell death underlies the etiology of liver damage/dysfunction as a complication of diabetes. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a chromatin-binding nuclear protein and damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, is integral to oxidative stress and signaling pathways regulating cell death and cell survival. We previously found that in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, reduction of oxidative stress after melatonin administration lowered necrotic cell death and increased expression of HMGB1 and hepatocellular damage. In the present study, we examined whether alleviation of diabetes-attendant oxidative stress and ensuing change in HMGB1 expression influence the dynamic equilibrium between apoptosis/autophagy and liver damage. We observed that elevated HMGB1 protein levels in diabetic rat liver accompanied increased interactions of HMGB1 with TLR4 and RAGE, and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and Beclin 1-dependent autophagy. The absence of p62 degradation in diabetic rat liver pointed to defective autophagy which was responsible for lower autophagosome/autophagolysosome formation and an increased apoptosis/autophagy ratio. Compared to diabetic rats, in melatonin-treated diabetic rats, the structure of liver cells was preserved, HMGB1/TLR4 interaction and downstream apoptotic signaling were significantly reduced, HMGB1/Beclin 1 colocalization and interactions were augmented and Beclin 1-mediated autophagy, mithophagy in particular, were increased. We concluded that in mild oxidative stress, HMGB1 is cytoprotective, whereas in intense oxidative stress, HMGB1 actions promote cell death and liver damage. Since reduced HMGB1 binds to RAGE but not to TLR4, redox modification of HMGB1 as a mechanism regulating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy in diabetes is discussed.
KeywordsApoptosis/autophagy interplay Diabetes Liver damage HMGB1 Melatonin Oxidative stress
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 173020.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 9.González-Rodríguez A, Mayoral R, Agra N, Valdecantos MP, Pardo V, Miquilena-Colina ME, Vargas-Castrillón J, Lo Iacono O, Corazzari M, Fimia GM, Piacentini M, Muntané J, Boscá L, García-Monzón C, Martín-Sanz P, Valverde ÁM (2014) Impaired autophagic flux is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress during the development of NAFLD. Cell Death Dis 5:e1179CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 26.Nowotny K, Jung T, Höhn A, Weber D, Grune T (2015) Advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biomolecules 5:194–222Google Scholar
- 37.Wirawan E, Vande Walle L, Kersse K, Cornelis S, Claerhout S, Vanoverberghe I, Roelandt R, De Rycke R, Verspurten J, Declercq W, Agostinis P, Vanden Berghe T, Lippens S, Vandenabeele P (2010) Caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1 inactivates Beclin-1-induced autophagy and enhances apoptosis by promoting the release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria. Cell Death Dis 1:e18–Google Scholar