Comparative efficacy of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid to attenuate valproic acid-induced autism-like features
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, ω-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, ω-6) on experimental autism features induced by early prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in albino wistar pups. The pups were scrutinized on the accounts of behavioral, biochemical, and inflammatory markers, and the results suggested that the GLA can impart significant protection in comparison to ALA against VPA-induced autism features. When scrutinized histopathologically, the cerebellum of the GLA-treated animals was evident for more marked protection toward neuronal degeneration and neuronal loss in comparison to ALA. Concomitant administration of ALA and GLA with VPA demonstrated a marked cutdown in the Pgp 9.5 expression with GLA having more pronounced effect. Henceforth, it can be concluded that ALA and GLA can impart favorable protection against the VPA-induced autism-like features with GLA having pronounced effect.
KeywordsAlpha-linolenic acid Autism spectrum disorder Gamma-linolenic acid Pgp 9.5 Polyunsaturated fatty acids
The authors would like to thank the University Grants Commission for providing fellowship to MS, JKR, SG, and RKY and would also like to thank to the Department of Science and Technology for providing fellowship to SR.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 8.Belur B, Kandaswamy N, Mukherjee K (1990) Laboratory techniques in histopathology. Medical laboratory technologyGoogle Scholar
- 10.Bhosale UA, Yegnanarayan R, Pophale PD, Zambare MR, Somani RS (2011) Study of central nervous system depressant and behavioral activity of an ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (Agadha) in different animal models. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research 1:104CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11.Bilguvar K, Tyagi NK, Ozkara C, Tuysuz B, Bakircioglu M, Choi M, Delil S, Caglayan AO, Baranoski JF, Erturk O (2013) Recessive loss of function of the neuronal ubiquitin hydrolase UCHL1 leads to early-onset progressive neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:3489–3494CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Bourre J, Dumont O, Piciotti M, Clement M, Chaudiere J, Bonneil M, Nalbone G, Lafont H, Pascal G, Durand G (1991) Essentiality of ω3 fatty acids for brain structure and function1. In: health effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafoods. Karger Publishers, pp 103–117Google Scholar
- 13.Covington MB (2004) Omega-3 fatty acids. Atlantic 1:2.0Google Scholar
- 14.Crane FL, Low H, Sun IL (2012) Evidence for a relation between plasma membrane coenzyme Q and autism. Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 5:1011–1016Google Scholar
- 25.Kaithwas G, Dubey K, Bhatia D, Sharma AD, Pillai K (2007) Reversal of sodium nitrite induced impairment of spontaneous alteration by Aloe vera gel: involvement of cholinergic system. Pharmacologyonline 3:428–437Google Scholar
- 33.Lyall K, Munger KL, O'Reilly ÉJ, Santangelo SL, Ascherio A (2013) Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Epidemiol :kws433Google Scholar
- 36.Mosconi MW, Wang Z, Schmitt LM, Tsai P, Sweeney JA (2015) The role of cerebellar circuitry alterations in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. Front Neurosci 9Google Scholar
- 48.Sharma N, Ahmad Y (2011) An effective method for the analysis of human plasma proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics 2009Google Scholar
- 51.Souza A, Dussan-Sarria JA, Medeiros LF, Souza AC, Oliveira C, Scarabelot VL, Adachi LN, Winkelmann-Duarte EC, Philippi-Martins BB, Netto CA (2014) Neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy reduces c-Fos activation in the rat hippocampus: evidence of a long-lasting effect. Int J Dev Neurosci 38:213–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 56.Weidenheim KM (2001) Neurobiology of autism: an update. Salud Mental 24:3–9Google Scholar