Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 187–198 | Cite as

Comparative efficacy of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid to attenuate valproic acid-induced autism-like features

  • Sneha Yadav
  • Virendra Tiwari
  • Manjari Singh
  • Rajnish K. Yadav
  • Subhadeep Roy
  • Uma Devi
  • Swetlana Gautam
  • Jitendra Kumar Rawat
  • Mohd. Nazam Ansari
  • Abdulaziz Sa Saeedan
  • Anand Prakash
  • Shubhini A. Saraf
  • Gaurav Kaithwas
Original Article


The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, ω-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, ω-6) on experimental autism features induced by early prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in albino wistar pups. The pups were scrutinized on the accounts of behavioral, biochemical, and inflammatory markers, and the results suggested that the GLA can impart significant protection in comparison to ALA against VPA-induced autism features. When scrutinized histopathologically, the cerebellum of the GLA-treated animals was evident for more marked protection toward neuronal degeneration and neuronal loss in comparison to ALA. Concomitant administration of ALA and GLA with VPA demonstrated a marked cutdown in the Pgp 9.5 expression with GLA having more pronounced effect. Henceforth, it can be concluded that ALA and GLA can impart favorable protection against the VPA-induced autism-like features with GLA having pronounced effect.


Alpha-linolenic acid Autism spectrum disorder Gamma-linolenic acid Pgp 9.5 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 



The authors would like to thank the University Grants Commission for providing fellowship to MS, JKR, SG, and RKY and would also like to thank to the Department of Science and Technology for providing fellowship to SR.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13105_2016_532_MOESM1_ESM.docx (107 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1 FAME of the brain tissue subjected to ALA and GLA. Group I: control (3 ml/kg), group II: positive control (400 mg/kg), group III: ALA(3 ml/kg), group IV: GLA(3 ml/kg), group V: VPA + ALA(400 mg/kg + 3 ml/kg), and group VI:VPA + GLA(400 mg/kg + 3 ml/kg) (DOCX 106 kb)


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Copyright information

© University of Navarra 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sneha Yadav
    • 1
  • Virendra Tiwari
    • 1
  • Manjari Singh
    • 1
  • Rajnish K. Yadav
    • 1
  • Subhadeep Roy
    • 1
  • Uma Devi
    • 2
  • Swetlana Gautam
    • 1
  • Jitendra Kumar Rawat
    • 1
  • Mohd. Nazam Ansari
    • 3
  • Abdulaziz Sa Saeedan
    • 3
  • Anand Prakash
    • 4
  • Shubhini A. Saraf
    • 1
  • Gaurav Kaithwas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Biosciences and BiotechnologyBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Medical Sciences Indigenous and Alternative MedicineSHIATS- Deemed to be University, Formerly Allahabad Agricultural InstituteNaini, AllahabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAL-KharjKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences and BiotechnologyBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

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