Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp 107–120 | Cite as

Tobacco nitrosamines as culprits in disease: mechanisms reviewed

Mini Review

Abstract

The link between tobacco abuse and cancer is well-established. However, emerging data indicate that toxins in tobacco smoke cause cellular injury due to enhanced toxic/metabolic effects of metabolites, disruption of intracellular signaling mechanisms, and formation of DNA, protein, and lipid adducts that impair function and promote oxidative stress and inflammation. These effects of smoking, which are largely non-carcinogenic, can be produced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines and their metabolites. These factors could account for the increased rates of neurodegeneration and insulin resistance diseases among smokers. Herein, we review nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolism, mechanisms of adduct formation, DNA damage, mutagenesis, and potential mechanisms of disease.

Keywords

Tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK Smoking Nicotine Carcinogenesis Adduct Neurodegeneration Diabetes Tobacco 

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© University of Navarra 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Pathology (Neuropathology), Neurology, and MedicineRhode Island Hospital and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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