Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 191–204 | Cite as

d-pinitol mitigates tumor growth by modulating interleukins and hormones and induces apoptosis in rat breast carcinogenesis through inhibition of NF-κB

  • Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
  • Natarajan Nandakumar
  • Peramaiyan Rajendran
  • Mohanraj Karthik Ganesh
  • Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy BalasubramanianEmail author
  • Ikuo Nishigaki
Original Paper


Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm in the world, and chemoprevention through dietary intervention strategy is an emerging option to reduce the incidence. d-pinitol (DP), a major component of soya bean, possesses attractive biological actions. We have investigated whether d-pinitol have an effect on tumor growth in vivo against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary carcinogenesis and investigated its mechanism of action. Tumors were induced in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats by a gastric dose of 20 mg/kg DMBA, and after 13 weeks of induction period, the rats were orally administered with d-pinitol for 45 days. At the end of the assay, animals in carcinogen control group prompted a tumor incidence of 100 % and developed a tumor volume of 8.35 ± 0.56, which was significantly reduced to 5.74 ± 0.32 for the animals treated with d-pinitol. The d-pinitol treatment not only decreased the tumor volume but also further examination revealed that tumors from animals that received d-pinitol reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation which in turn results in modulation of its downstreaming p53 and proteins of caspase-3 family. Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activation were also decreased after d-pinitol supplementation leading to induction of apoptosis and finally cell death. Furthermore, the status of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and tumor markers, lipid profile, and hormones was also significantly declined up on d-pinitol administration. Thus, it reveals the collective involvement of the abovementioned parameters along with NF-κB signaling through which d-pinitol induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses breast cancer during DMBA-induced rat breast carcinogenesis.


d-pinitol Apoptosis DMBA Breast cancer NF-κB Bcl-2 Caspase-3 p53 



The authors are extremely grateful to Dr. R. Venkatakrishna Murali, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. A.L. Mudhaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai—600113 for providing the laboratory facilities and the financial assistance from Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi in the form of DST-PURSE-JRF is gratefully acknowledged and one of the authors “Natarajan Nandakumar” thank Prof. Jacob Gopas PhD, MPH (BGU, Israel) for his useful comments and encouragement. We thank Dr. S. Prakash, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai for interpreting the immunofluorescence micrographs and suggestions. We are also thankful to Mrs. Rita Rajan, CMC Vellore for transmission electron microscope studies and Dr. Sarasabharathy for interpretation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© University of Navarra 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Natarajan Nandakumar
    • 2
    • 4
  • Peramaiyan Rajendran
    • 3
  • Mohanraj Karthik Ganesh
    • 5
  • Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy Balasubramanian
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ikuo Nishigaki
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKelantanMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical SciencesUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  3. 3.NPO-International Laboratory of BiochemistryNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and GeneticsFaculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael
  5. 5.Department of Anatomy, Dr. ALM PG IBMSUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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