Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 329–340 | Cite as

Orosomucoid, an acute response protein with multiple modulating activities

Mini Review


Orosomucoid (ORM), or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is one of the acute-phase proteins. It has a molecular weight of 37–54 kDa, low pI of 2.8–3.8, and is heavily glycosylated (45 %). It is mainly synthesized by the liver, but many extrahepatic tissues have also been reported to produce ORM under myriad physiological and pathological conditions. Expression of the ORM gene is mainly controlled by a combination of the major regulatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, interleukin (IL)-1, TNF-α, and IL-6. ORM has many activities including, but not limited to, acting as an acute-phase reactant and disease marker, modulating immunity, binding and carrying drugs, maintaining the barrier function of capillary, and mediating the sphingolipid metabolism. Its related receptor has been preliminarily explored in macrophages, neutrophils, and liver parenchymal cells, involving the membrane receptor CCR5, Siglect-5, and HBB, respectively. Additional activities of ORM such as regulating metabolism are currently being explored. Because of its regulation in liver diseases, cancer, and HIV, future ORM research is warranted.


Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein Acute-phase proteins Marker Immunity Drug carrier Capillary barrier Sphingolipid metabolism Receptor 


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© University of Navarra 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, School of PharmacySecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina

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