Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 79–88 | Cite as

Effects of exercise at individual anaerobic threshold and maximal fat oxidation intensities on plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and metabolic health biomarkers

  • Hamid Mohebbi
  • Maryam Nourshahi
  • Mansour Ghasemikaram
  • Saleh Safarimosavi
Original Paper


Exercise is recognized as an effective method of weight management and short-term appetite regulation tool. The effect of different exercise intensities on appetite regulation hormones in healthy overweight participants has not been intensively studied. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exercise at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) intensities on the nesfatin-1 response and metabolic health biomarkers in overweight men. Nine healthy overweight males (age, 23.1 ± 1.1 years) volunteered in this study in a counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and following the first 45 min of recovery for measuring plasma variables. There was significant decrease in plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and leptin after exercise at the IAT intensity which remained lower than baseline following 45 min of recovery. However, nesfatin-1 and leptin levels did not change significantly in any time courses of Fatmax intensity (P > 0.09). Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration increased during exercise in both intensities (P < 0.05), whereas changes in free fatty acids (FFAs) and epinephrine concentrations were significant only at the IAT. In addition, a significant correlation was found among nesfatin-1 levels with insulin (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) and glucose (r = 0.41, P < 0.05) at basal and in response to exercise. These results indicate that IAT has a greater exercise-induced appetite regulation effect compared with Fatmax. Based on these data, the intensity of exercise may have an important role in changes of nesfatin-1, leptin, FFA, and epinephrine concentrations even though this was not the case for IL-6 and insulin resistance.


Adipokine Cytokine Fatmax Insulin resistance Type of exercise 



Body mass index


Blood pressure


Beats per min


Intra-assay coefficient of variation




Energy expenditure


Effect size


Maximal fat oxidation


Free fatty acid


Homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance


Heart rate


Individual anaerobic threshold




Intramuscular triacylglycerol


Waist-to-hip ratio


Respiratory exchange ratio


Peak oxygen uptake


Changes in plasma volume



The authors would like to thank the dedicated group of participants.


This research was supported by a research fund from Guilan University.


  1. 1.
    Achten J, Gleeson M, Jeukendrup AE (2002) Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:92–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almada C, Cataldo LR, Smalley SV, Diaz E, Serrano A, Hodgson MI et al (2013) Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 after an acute physical exercise: relation with post-exercise energy intake in twins. J Physiol Biochem 69:85–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aslan M, Celik O, Celik N, Turkcuoglu I, Yilmaz E, Karaer A et al (2012) Cord blood nesfatin-1 and apelin-36 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. Endocrine 41:424–429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aydin S (2013) Multi-functional peptide hormone NUCB2/nesfatin-1. Endocrine 44(2):312–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bouassida A, Chamari K, Zaouali M, Feki Y, Zbidi A, Tabka Z (2010) Review on leptin and adiponectin responses and adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. Br J Sports Med 44:620–630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costill DL, Coyle EF, Dalsky G, Evans W, Fink W, Hoopes D (1977) Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. J Appl Physiol 43:695–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Desgorces FD, Chennaoui M, Gomez-Merino D, Drogou C, Bonneau D, Guezennec CY (2004) Leptin, catecholamines and free fatty acids related to reduced recovery delays after training. Eur J Appl Physiol 93:153–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duclos M, Corcuff JB, Ruffie A, Roger P, Manier G (1999) Rapid leptin decrease in immediate post-exercise recovery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 50:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fischer CP (2006) Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 12:6–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Hansen AK, Pilegaard H, Saltin B, Pedersen BK (2004) Endurance training reduces the contraction-induced interleukin-6 mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E1189–E1194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Foo KS, Brauner H, Ostenson CG, Broberger C (2010) Nucleobindin-2/nesfatin in the endocrine pancreas: distribution and relationship to glycaemic state. J Endocrinol 204:255–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gantulga D, Maejima Y, Nakata M, Yada T (2012) Glucose and insulin induce Ca2+ signaling in nesfatin-1 neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 420:811–815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghanbari-Niaki A, Kraemer RR, Soltani R (2010) Plasma nesfatin-1 and glucoregulatory hormone responses to two different anaerobic exercise sessions. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:863–868CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gollnick PD, Piehl K, Saltin B (1974) Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates. J Physiol 241:45–57CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gonzalez R, Perry RL, Gao X, Gaidhu MP, Tsushima RG, Ceddia RB et al (2011) Nutrient responsive nesfatin-1 regulates energy balance and induces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rats. Endocrinology 152:3628–3637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gonzalez R, Reingold BK, Gao X, Gaidhu MP, Tsushima RG, Unniappan S (2011) Nesfatin-1 exerts a direct, glucose-dependent insulinotropic action on mouse islet beta- and MIN6 cells. J Endocrinol 208:R9–R16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Helge JW, Stallknecht B, Pedersen BK, Galbo H, Kiens B, Richter EA (2003) The effect of graded exercise on IL-6 release and glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 546:299–305CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeukendrup AE, Wallis GA (2005) Measurement of substrate oxidation during exercise by means of gas exchange measurements. Int J Sports Med 26(Suppl 1):S28–S37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Knechtle B, Muller G, Willmann F, Kotteck K, Eser P, Knecht H (2004) Fat oxidation in men and women endurance athletes in running and cycling. Int J Sports Med 25:38–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lam CK, Chari M, Wang PY, Lam TK (2008) Central lactate metabolism regulates food intake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E491–E496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li QC, Wang HY, Chen X, Guan HZ, Jiang ZY (2010) Fasting plasma levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the nutrient-related fluctuation of nesfatin-1 level in normal humans. Regul Pept 159:72–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28:412–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meyer T, Gabriel HH, Kindermann W (1999) Is determination of exercise intensities as percentages of VO2max or HRmax adequate? Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1342–1345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moro C, Harant I, Badin PM, Patarca FX, Guilland JC, Bourlier V et al (2014) Influence of lipolysis and fatty acid availability on fuel selection during exercise. J Physiol Biochem 70:583–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oh IS, Shimizu H, Satoh T, Okada S, Adachi S, Inoue K et al (2006) Identification of nesfatin-1 as a satiety molecule in the hypothalamus. Nature 443:709–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ostrowski K, Hermann C, Bangash A, Schjerling P, Nielsen JN, Pedersen BK (1998) A trauma-like elevation of plasma cytokines in humans in response to treadmill running. J Physiol 513(Pt 3):889–894CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramanjaneya M, Chen J, Brown JE, Tripathi G, Hallschmid M, Patel S et al (2010) Identification of nesfatin-1 in human and murine adipose tissue: a novel depot-specific adipokine with increased levels in obesity. Endocrinology 151:3169–3180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reihmane D, Dela F (2014) Interleukin-6: possible biological roles during exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 14:242–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Romain AJ, Carayol M, Desplan M, Fedou C, Ninot G, Mercier J et al (2012) Physical activity targeted at maximal lipid oxidation: a meta-analysis. J Nutr Metab 2012:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E et al (1993) Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol 265:E380–E391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabapathy S, Morris NR, Schneider DA (2006) Ventilatory and gas-exchange responses to incremental exercise performed with reduced muscle glycogen content. J Sci Med Sport 9:267–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schubert MM, Sabapathy S, Leveritt M, Desbrow B (2014) Acute exercise and hormones related to appetite regulation: a meta-analysis. Sports Med 44:387–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shimizu H, Oh IS, Hashimoto K, Nakata M, Yamamoto S, Yoshida N et al (2009) Peripheral administration of nesfatin-1 reduces food intake in mice: the leptin-independent mechanism. Endocrinology 150:662–671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Skein M, Duffield R, Kelly BT, Marino FE (2012) The effects of carbohydrate intake and muscle glycogen content on self-paced intermittent-sprint exercise despite no knowledge of carbohydrate manipulation. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:2859–2870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stengel A, Mori M, Tache Y (2013) The role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of food intake and body weight: recent developments and future endeavors. Obes Rev 14(11):859–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Su Y, Zhang J, Tang Y, Bi F, Liu JN (2010) The novel function of nesfatin-1: anti-hyperglycemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:1039–1042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Takagi S, Sakamoto S, Midorikawa T, Konishi M, Katsumura T (2013) Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in short-time testing. J Sports Sci 32:175–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tan BK, Hallschmid M, Kern W, Lehnert H, Randeva HS (2011) Decreased cerebrospinal fluid/plasma ratio of the novel satiety molecule, nesfatin-1/NUCB-2, in obese humans: evidence of nesfatin-1/NUCB-2 resistance and implications for obesity treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E669–E673CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thomson JA, Green HJ, Houston ME (1979) Muscle glycogen depletion patterns in fast twitch fibre subgroups of man during submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Pflugers Arch Eur J Physiol 379:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tsuchiya T, Shimizu H, Yamada M, Osaki A, Oh IS, Ariyama Y et al (2010) Fasting concentrations of nesfatin-1 are negatively correlated with body mass index in non-obese males. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 73:484–490Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Urhausen A, Coen B, Weiler B, Kindermann W (1993) Individual anaerobic threshold and maximum lactate steady state. Int J Sports Med 14:134–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Watt MJ, Heigenhauser GJ, Dyck DJ, Spriet LL (2002) Intramuscular triacylglycerol, glycogen and acetyl group metabolism during 4 h of moderate exercise in man. J Physiol 541:969–978CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Navarra 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Mohebbi
    • 1
  • Maryam Nourshahi
    • 2
  • Mansour Ghasemikaram
    • 2
  • Saleh Safarimosavi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport ScienceUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  2. 2.Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport ScienceUniversity of Shahid BeheshtiTehranIran

Personalised recommendations