Advertisement

Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 583–591 | Cite as

Influence of lipolysis and fatty acid availability on fuel selection during exercise

  • Cedric MoroEmail author
  • Isabelle Harant
  • Pierre-Marie Badin
  • François-Xavier Patarca
  • Jean-Claude Guilland
  • Virginie Bourlier
  • Dominique Langin
  • Isabelle De Glisezinski
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of substrate availability on fuel selection during exercise. Eight endurance-trained male cyclists performed 90-min exercise at 70 % of their maximal oxygen uptake in a cross-over design, either in rested condition (CON) or the day after 2-h exercise practised at 70 % of maximal oxygen uptake (EX). Subjects were given a sucrose load (0.75 g kg−1 body weight) 45 min after the beginning of the 90-min exercise test. Lipolysis was measured in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) by microdialysis and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry. Lipid oxidation increased during exercise and tended to decrease during sucrose ingestion in both conditions. Lipid oxidation was higher during the whole experimental period in the EX group (p = 0.004). Interestingly, fuel selection, assessed by the change in respiratory exchange ratio (RER), was increased in the EX session (p = 0.002). This was paralleled by a higher rate of SCAT lipolysis reflected by dialysate glycerol, plasma glycerol, and fatty acids (FA) levels (p < 0.001). Of note, we observed a significant relationship between whole-body fat oxidation and dialysate glycerol in both sessions (r 2 = 0.33, p = 0.02). In conclusion, this study highlights the limiting role of lipolysis and plasma FA availability to whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in endurance-trained subjects. This study shows that adipose tissue lipolysis is a determinant of fuel selection during exercise in healthy subjects.

Keywords

Lipolysis Fat oxidation Fuel selection Exercise 

Abbreviations

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

ATBF

Adipose tissue blood flow

AUC

Area under the curve

CON

Control

EX

Exercise

FA

Fatty acid

GH

Growth hormone

NEFA

Non-esterified fatty acid

RER

Respiratory exchange ratio

SCAT

Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

VO2max

Maximal oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to Marie-Adeline Marques for outstanding technical assistance, to the staff of the Clinical Investigation Center, and to the study participants. We thank Drs. François Crampes, Michel Berlan, and Pr. Max Lafontan for pivotal advice and fruitful discussions.

This work was supported by a grant of the Toulouse hospital “PHRC #0508202”.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Arkinstall MJ, Bruce CR, Clark SA, Rickards CA, Burke LM, Hawley JA (2004) Regulation of fuel metabolism by preexercise muscle glycogen content and exercise intensity. J Appl Physiol 97(6):2275–2283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asp S, Daugaard JR, Kristiansen S, Kiens B, Richter EA (1998) Exercise metabolism in human skeletal muscle exposed to prior eccentric exercise. J Physiol 509(Pt 1):305–313PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernst E, Gutman I (1974) Determination of ethanol with alcohol deshydrogenase and NAD. In: Methods of enzymatic analysis 3(London: Academic): 1499–1505Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crampes F, Marion-Latard F, Zakaroff-Girard A, De Glisezinski I, Harant I, Thalamas C, Stich V, Riviere D, Lafontan M, Berlan M (2003) Effects of a longitudinal training program on responses to exercise in overweight men. Obes Res 11(2):247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Glisezinski I, Harant I, Crampes F, Trudeau F, Felez A, Cottet-Emard JM, Garrigues M, Riviere D (1998) Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on adipose tissue lipolysis during long-lasting exercise in trained men. J Appl Physiol 84(5):1627–1632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Glisezinski I, Moro C, Pillard F, Marion-Latard F, Harant I, Meste M, Berlan M, Crampes F, Riviere D (2003) Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285(5):E984–E990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enevoldsen LH, Stallknecht B, Fluckey JD, Galbo H (2000) Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279(3):E585–E592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Felländer G, Linde B, Bolinder J (1996) Evaluation of the microdialysis ethanol technique for monitoring of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20:220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferrannini E (1988) The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: a review. Metabolism 37(3):287–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Galgani JE, Heilbronn LK, Azuma K, Kelley DE, Albu JB, Pi-Sunyer X, Smith SR, Ravussin E (2008) Metabolic flexibility in response to glucose is not impaired in people with type 2 diabetes after controlling for glucose disposal rate. Diabetes 57(4):841–845PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galgani JE, Johannsen NM, Bajpeyi S, Costford SR, Zhang Z, Gupta AK, Ravussin E (2011) Role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density on exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md 20(7):1387–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galgani JE, Moro C, Ravussin E (2008) Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295(5):E1009–E1017PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horowitz JF (2003) Fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. Trends Endocrinol Metab 14(8):386–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horowitz JF, Klein S (2000) Lipid metabolism during endurance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 72(2 Suppl):558S–563SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen J, Rustad PI, Kolnes AJ, Lai YC (2011) The role of skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown for regulation of insulin sensitivity by exercise. Front Physiol (article 112) 2:1–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jeppesen J, Kiens B (2012) Regulation and limitations to fatty acid oxidation during exercise. J Physiol 590(Pt 5):1059–1068PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jeukendrup AE, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ (1998) Fat metabolism during exercise: a review. Part I: fatty acid mobilization and muscle metabolism. Int J Sports Med 19(4):231–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kelley DE, Mandarino LJ (2000) Fuel selection in human skeletal muscle in insulin resistance: a reexamination. Diabetes 49(5):677–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kiens B, Richter EA (1998) Utilization of skeletal muscle triacylglycerol during postexercise recovery in humans. Am J Physiol 275(2 Pt 1):E332–E337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kimber NE, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL, Dyck DJ (2003) Skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism during recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise in humans. J Physiol 548(Pt 3):919–927PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krssak M, Petersen KF, Bergeron R, Price T, Laurent D, Rothman DL, Roden M, Shulman GI (2000) Intramuscular glycogen and intramyocellular lipid utilization during prolonged exercise and recovery in man: a 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85(2):748–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lafontan M, Moro C, Sengenes C, Galitzky J, Crampes F, Berlan M (2005) An unsuspected metabolic role for atrial natriuretic peptides: the control of lipolysis, lipid mobilization, and systemic nonesterified fatty acids levels in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25(10):2032–2042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    MacDougall JD, Ward GR, Sutton JR (1977) Muscle glycogen repletion after high-intensity intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol 42(2):129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Millet L, Barbe P, Lafontan M, Berlan M, Galitzky J (1998) Catecholamine effects on lipolysis and blood flow in human abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. J Appl Physiol 85(1):181–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moro C, Berlan M (2006) Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of natriuretic peptides. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 20(1):41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moro C, Crampes F, Sengenes C, De Glisezinski I, Galitzky J, Thalamas C, Lafontan M, Berlan M (2004) Atrial natriuretic peptide contributes to physiological control of lipid mobilization in humans. FASEB J 18(7):908–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ormsbee MJ, Thyfault JP, Johnson EA, Kraus RM, Choi MD, Hickner RC (2007) Fat metabolism and acute resistance exercise in trained men. J Appl Physiol 102(5):1767–1772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Peters Futre EM, Noakes TD, Raine RI, Terblanche SE (1987) Muscle glycogen repletion during active postexercise recovery. Am J Physiol 253(3 Pt 1):E305–E311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ravussin E, Bogardus C, Scheidegger K, LaGrange B, Horton ED, Horton ES (1986) Effect of elevated FFA on carbohydrate and lipid oxidation during prolonged exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 60(3):893–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roepstorff C, Halberg N, Hillig T, Saha AK, Ruderman NB, Wojtaszewski JF, Richter EA, Kiens B (2005) Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288(1):E133–E142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E, Wolfe RR (1993) Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol 265(3 Pt 1):E380–E391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sidossis LS, Wolfe RR, Coggan AR (1998) Regulation of fatty acid oxidation in untrained vs. trained men during exercise. Am J Physiol 274(3 Pt 1):E510–E515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spriet LL (2002) Regulation of skeletal muscle fat oxidation during exercise in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34(9):1477–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    van Loon LJ (2004) Use of intramuscular triacylglycerol as a substrate source during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 97(4):1170–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    van Loon LJ, Greenhaff PL, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ (2001) The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol 536(Pt 1):295–304PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van Loon LJ, Thomason-Hughes M, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Koopman R, Greenhaff PL, Hardie DG, Keizer HA, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ (2005) Inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis increases intramuscular lipid and glycogen use in vivo in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289(3):E482–E493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watt MJ, Holmes AG, Steinberg GR, Mesa JL, Kemp BE, Febbraio MA (2004) Reduced plasma FFA availability increases net triacylglycerol degradation, but not GPAT or HSL activity, in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287(1):E120–E127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weltan SM, Bosch AN, Dennis SC, Noakes TD (1998) Preexercise muscle glycogen content affects metabolism during exercise despite maintenance of hyperglycemia. Am J Physiol 274(1 Pt 1):E83–E88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weltan SM, Bosch AN, Dennis SC, Noakes TD (1998) Influence of muscle glycogen content on metabolic regulation. Am J Physiol 274(1 Pt 1):E72–E82PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Navarra 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cedric Moro
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Isabelle Harant
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierre-Marie Badin
    • 1
    • 2
  • François-Xavier Patarca
    • 4
  • Jean-Claude Guilland
    • 3
  • Virginie Bourlier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dominique Langin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Isabelle De Glisezinski
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Inserm UMR1048Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, Obesity Research LaboratoryToulouse Cedex 4France
  2. 2.Paul Sabatier UniversityToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Vitamins LaboratoryDijon CedexFrance
  4. 4.Respiratory Exploration Department and Sport Medicine DepartmentUniversity Hospital LarreyToulouse Cedex 9France
  5. 5.Laboratory of clinical biochemistryToulouse University HospitalsToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations