Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats
- 574 Downloads
L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.
KeywordsL-carnitine Fat diets Physical fatigue Weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) Antioxidant enzymes Lipid peroxidation
The authors are thankful to Dr. Farhath Khanum, Head, Biochemistry and Nanosciences Discipline and Dr. H.V. Batra, Director, Defence Food Research Laboratory, for their constant support and encouragement during the period of the study.
- 8.Buege JA, Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52:301–310Google Scholar
- 13.Graziano F, Bisonni R, Catalano V, Silva R, Rovidati S, Mencarini E, Ferraro B, Canestrari F, Baldelli AM, De Gaetano A, Giordani P, Testa E, Lai V (2002) Potential role of levocarnitine supplementation for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced fatigue in non-anaemic cancer patients. Br J Cancer 86:1854–1857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Jin HS, Kenshiro F and Teruo M (2000) Polyunsaturated (n-3) Fatty Acids Susceptible to Peroxidation Are Increased in Plasma and Tissue Lipids of Rats Fed Docosahexaenoic Acid-Containing Oils. Journal of Nutrition. 3028-3033Google Scholar
- 16.Jing LJ, Cui GW, Feng Q, Xiao YS (2009) Orthogonal test design for optimization of the extraction of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum and evaluation of its anti-athletic fatigue activity. J Med Plant Res 3:433–437Google Scholar
- 25.Sawhney SK, Singh R (2005) In introductory practical biochemistry. Narosa, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- 28.Singh A, Garg V, Gupta S, Kulkarni SK (2002) Role of antioxidants in chronic fatigue syndrome in mice. Ind J Exp Biol 40:1240–1244Google Scholar