Digital hardware realization of a novel adaptive ink drop spread operator and its application in modeling and classification and on-chip training

  • Sajad Haghzad KlidbaryEmail author
  • Saeed Bagheri Shouraki
  • Bernabe Linares-Barranco
Original Article


In artificial intelligence (AI), proposing an efficient algorithm with an appropriate hardware implementation has always been a challenge because of the well-accepted fact that AI hardware implementations should ideally be comparable to biological systems in terms of hardware area. Active learning method (ALM) is a fuzzy learning algorithm inspired by human brain computations. Unlike traditional algorithms, which employ complicated computations, ALM tries to model human brain computations using qualitative and behavioral descriptions of the problem. The main computational engine in ALM is the ink drop spread (IDS) operator, but this operator imposes high memory requirements and computational costs, making the ALM algorithm and its hardware implementation unsuitable for some of the applications. This paper proposes an adaptive alternative method for implementing the IDS operator; a method which results in a marked reduction in the algorithm’s computational complexity and in the amount of memory required and hardware. To check its validity and performance, the method was used to carry out modeling and pattern classification tasks. This paper used challenging and real-world datasets and compared with well-known algorithms (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and multi-layer perceptron) in software simulation and hardware implementation. Compared to traditional implementations of the ALM algorithm and other learning algorithms, the proposed FPGA implementation offers higher speed, less hardware, and improved performance, thus facilitating real-time application. Our ultimate goal in this paper was to present a hardware implementation with an on-chip training that allows it to adapt to its environment without dependency on the host system (on-chip learning).


Soft computing Ink drop spread (IDS) operator Fuzzy modeling Pattern classification Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation 



The authors would like to thank Mohsen Firouzi and Menoua Keshishian for their generous contribution to our analysis. This work was partially supported by the INSF (Iran National Science Foundation) Grant number 96000943.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13042_2018_890_MOESM1_ESM.rar (361 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (RAR 360 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajad Haghzad Klidbary
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saeed Bagheri Shouraki
    • 1
  • Bernabe Linares-Barranco
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Group for Brain Simulation and Cognitive Science, Artificial Creatures Laboratory (ACL), Department of Electrical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Instituto de Microelectronica de Sevilla (IMSE-CNM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)Universidad de SevillaSevilleSpain

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