Bat algorithm with triangle-flipping strategy for numerical optimization

  • Xingjuan Cai
  • Hui Wang
  • Zhihua CuiEmail author
  • Jianghui Cai
  • Yu Xue
  • Lei Wang
Original Article


Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel population-based evolutionary algorithm inspired by echolocation behavior. Due to its simple concept, BA has been widely applied to various engineering applications. As an optimization approach, the global search characteristics determine the optimization performance and convergence speed. In BA, the global search capability is dominated by the velocity updating. How to update the velocity of bats may seriously affect the performance of BA. In this paper, we propose a triangle-flipping strategy to update the velocity of bats. Three different triangle-flipping strategies with five different designs are introduced. The optimization performance is verified by CEC2013 benchmarks in those designs against the standard BA. Simulation results show that the hybrid triangle-flipping strategy is superior to other algorithms.


Bat algorithm Random triangle-flipping strategy Directing triangle-flipping strategy Hybrid triangle-flipping strategy 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under no. 61663028, Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province under Grant no. 201601D011045, and International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China under Grant no. 2014DFR70280.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingjuan Cai
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 2
  • Zhihua Cui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jianghui Cai
    • 1
  • Yu Xue
    • 3
  • Lei Wang
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyTaiyuan University of Science and TechnologyTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Water Information Cooperative Sensing and Intelligent ProcessingNanchang Institute of TechnologyNanchangChina
  3. 3.School of Computer and SoftwareNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Department of Control Science and EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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