Systematic Review of In Vivo Animal Models of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Species, Standard Parameters, and Outcomes
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In preclinical models, modification of experimental parameters associated with techniques of inducing subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can greatly affect outcomes. To analyze how parameter choice affects the relevance and comparability of findings, we systematically reviewed 765 experimental studies of in vivo animal SAH models (2000–2014). During the last decade, we found marked increases in publications using smaller species and models for simulating acute events after SAH. Overall, the fewer types of species and models used did not correlate with an increased standardization in the experimental characteristics and procedures. However, by species, commonly applied, reliable parameters for each experimental SAH technique were identified in mouse, rat, rabbit, and dog models. Our findings can serve as a starting point for discussion toward a more uniform performance of SAH experiments, development of preclinical SAH common data elements, and establishment of standardized protocols for multicenter preclinical trials.
KeywordsSubarachnoid hemorrhage Animal Model Delayed cerebral vasospasm Early brain injury
We thank our secretaries and assistants (Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland) for obtaining more than 1000 articles for review. We are grateful to Sarah McCann (CAMARADES Methodologist, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK) who supported our data management and data extraction. We thank Mary Kemper (Glia Media) for medical editing.
Conception and design: Marbacher, Schöpf. Screening of titles and abstracts: Marbacher, Muroi. Full-text data extraction: Grüter, Schöpf, Croci, Lattmann, Roth, Bircher, and Wolfert. Analysis and interpretation of data: Marbacher, Dutilh. Drafting the article: Marbacher, Grüter, Dutilh. Critically revising the article: Nevzati, Widmer. Statistical analysis: Dutilh. Administrative support: Fandino. Study supervision: Fandino.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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