Radiological Estimation of Intracranial Blood Volume and Occurrence of Hydrocephalus Determines Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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Acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with several metabolic derangements including stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH). The present study is designed to identify objective radiological determinants for SIH to better understand its contributory role in clinical outcomes after aSAH. A computer-aided detection tool was used to segment admission computed tomography (CT) images of aSAH patients to estimate intracranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Modified Graeb score (mGS) was used as a semi-quantitative measure to estimate degree of hydrocephalus. The relationship between glycemic gap (GG) determined SIH, mGS, and estimated intracranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid volumes were evaluated using linear regression. Ninety-four [94/187 (50.3%)] among the study cohort had SIH (defined as GG > 26.7 mg/dl). Patients with SIH had 14.3 ml/1000 ml more intracranial blood volume as compared to those without SIH [39.6 ml (95% confidence interval, CI, 33.6 to 45.5) vs. 25.3 ml (95% CI 20.6 to 29.9), p = 0.0002]. Linear regression analysis of mGS with GG showed each unit increase in mGS resulted in 1.2 mg/dl increase in GG [p = 0.002]. Patients with SIH had higher mGS [median 4.0, interquartile range, IQR 2.0–7.0] as compared to those without SIH [median 2.0, IQR 0.0–6.0], p = 0.002. Patients with third ventricular blood on admission CT scan were more likely to develop SIH [67/118 (56.8%) vs. 27/69 (39.1%), p = 0.023]. Hence, the present study, using unbiased SIH definition and objective CT scan parameters, reports “dose-dependent” radiological features resulting in SIH. Such findings allude to a brain injury-stress response-neuroendocrine axis in etiopathogenesis of SIH.
KeywordsHemorrhagic stroke Hyperglycemia Hydrocephalus Delayed cerebral ischemia Shunt
Analysis of variance
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Area under receiver operator characteristic
Delayed cerebral ischemia
External ventricular drain
Graphic user interface
Hunt and Hess
Modified Fisher score
Modified Graeb score
Neurosciences intensive care unit
Receiver operating characteristic
World Federation of Neurological Surgeons
The authors would like to thank Blair Apple, BS, and Brittany Karfonta, BS, with Clinical Studies Unit in Department of Neurology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center for their support in data management of the present study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Not applicable due to retrospective nature of the study design.
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