Translational Stroke Research

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 93–96

Re-exploring Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha as a Target for Therapy in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Opinion Paper


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a perplexing condition with high mortality and no treatment beyond supportive care. A major portion of the injurious process is takes place during the hours following the development of hematoma. This so-called secondary injury is characterized by an inflammatory cascade that involves a variety of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Several studies in the rodent model of ICH have shown a rapid increase in brain concentrations of TNF-α following hematoma induction. There is a reasonable body of evidence from experimental models of ICH suggesting that upregulation of TNF-α adjacent to the hematoma is associated with increased peri-hematomal edema, and that inhibition of TNF-α attenuates the formation and progression of this edema and ultimately improves outcomes. Unfortunately, efforts to expand upon these findings have interminably stalled at the pre-clinical phase. A robust clinical study to validate serum TNF-α as a marker for secondary injury in ICH patients is yet to materialize.


Intracerebral hemorrhage Inflammation Biomarkers Tumor necrosis factor alpha Secondary brain injury 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, School of MedicineUniversity of Texas Health Science Center San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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