Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) on Infarct Size and Inflammation After Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
- 279 Downloads
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects in animals and humans. We used the FDA-approved Sofpulse™ (Ivivi Health Sciences, LLC) to study effect of PEMF on infarct size and poststroke inflammation following distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in mice. Electromagnetic field was applied within 30–45 min after ischemic brain damage and utilized twice a day for 21 consecutive days. Ischemic infarct size was assessed using MRI and histological analysis. At 21 days after dMCAO, the infarct size was significantly (by 26 %) smaller in PEMF-treated animals as compared to controls. Neuroinflammation in these animals was evaluated using specialized cytokine/chemokine PCR array. We demonstrate that PEMF significantly influenced expression profile of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the hemisphere ipsilateral to ischemic damage. Importantly, expression of gene encoding major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α was significantly reduced, while expression of major anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly increased. PEMF application significantly downregulated genes encoding members of the major pro-apoptotic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily indicating that the treatment could have both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Both reduction of infarct size and influence on neuroinflammation could have a potentially important positive impact on the poststroke recovery process, implicating PEMF as a possible adjunctive therapy for stroke patients.
KeywordsPulsed electromagnetic field dMCAO Ischemic infarct Neuroinflammation
This work was supported in part by Ivivi Health Sciences, LLC. We would like to thank Dr. Arthur Pilla for his valuable input and assistance. Microscopy images were generated in the UNM Cancer Center Fluorescence Microscopy Facility supported as detailed on the webpage http://hsc.unm.edu/crtc/microscopy/instru.html. Gene and miRNA analysis was performed in the Keck-UNM Genomics Resource (KUGR) facility and in Qiagen Company.
Conflict of Interest
Juan Carlos Pena-Philippides has no financial interest with the sponsor of the research. Yirong Yang has no financial interest with the sponsor of the research. Olga Bragina has no financial interest with the sponsor of the research. Sean Hagberg has financial interests with Ivivi Health Sciences. Edwin Nemoto has no financial interest with the sponsor of the research. Tamara Roitbak has no financial interest with the sponsor of the research.
- 1.American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4725. 2010.
- 2.Statistics NY-PD http://nyp.org/health/disability-statistics.html. 2010.
- 20.Jones PB, Shin HK, Boas DA, Hyman BT, Moskowitz MA, Ayata C, et al. Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13(4):044007. doi: 10.1117/1.2950312.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Slevin M, Krupinski J, Mitsios N, Perikleous C, Cuadrado E, Montaner J, et al. Leukaemia inhibitory factor is over-expressed by ischaemic brain tissue concomitant with reduced plasma expression following acute stroke. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15(1):25–33. doi: 10.1111/J.1468-1331.2007.01995.X.Google Scholar
- 30.Boutin H, LeFeuvre RA, Horai R, Asano M, Iwakura Y, Rothwell NJ. Role of IL-1(alpha) and IL-1(beta) in ischemic brain damage (vol 21, pg 5528, 2001). J Neurosci. 2001;21(17):U11–U.Google Scholar
- 37.Watson ML, White AM, Campbell EM, Smith AW, Uddin J, Yoshimura T, et al. Anti-inflammatory actions of interleukin-13: suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and antigen-induced leukocyte accumulation in the guinea pig lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20(5):1007–12. doi: 10.1165/ajrcmb.20.5.3540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Gabay C. Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8. doi: 10.1186/Ar1917.