Translational Stroke Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 390–401 | Cite as

The Effects of Estrogen in Ischemic Stroke

Original Article


Stroke is a leading cause of death and the most common cause of long-term disability in the USA. Women have a lower incidence of stroke compared with men throughout most of the lifespan which has been ascribed to protective effects of gonadal steroids, most notably estrogen. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, as women age, they are disproportionately affected by stroke, coincident with the loss of estrogen with menopause. The risk of stroke in elderly women exceeds that of men and it is clear that in some settings estrogen can have pro-inflammatory effects. This review will focus on estrogen and inflammation and its interaction with aging.


Stroke Aging Sex Estrogen 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA

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