Translational Stroke Research

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 159–170

Sonothrombolysis: An Emerging Modality for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

  • Azita Soltani
  • Wayne M. Clark
  • Douglas R. Hansmann
Review
  • 107 Downloads

Abstract

To date, it is believed that rapid removal of impedances hindering normal blood circulation in the brain would salvage ischemic tissue. Hence, most treatment modalities undergoing clinical evaluation for treatment of stroke are focused on faster recanalization in acute ischemic stroke or faster hematoma mass reduction in hemorrhagic stroke. Therapeutic ultrasound is among the promising emerging modalities being clinically evaluated to meet this purpose. This review provides an overview of existing clinical data in evaluating sonothrombolysis applications in treatment of acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Furthermore, the present status of clinical evaluation of microbubbles as a potential adjuvant to this modality is reviewed.

Keywords

Transcranial sonothrombolysis Endovascular sonothrombolysis Acute ischemic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke 

Abbreviation

AIS

Acute Ischemic Stroke

Barthel Index

BI

CLEAR

Evaluating accelerated resolution of intraventricular hemorrhage, rt-PA (Cathflo®) treatment of brain hemorrhage

CLOTBUST

Combined lysis of thrombus in brain ischemia using transcranial ultrasound and systemic TPA

CT

X-ray computed tomography

EVD

External ventricular drain

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GCS

Glascow Coma Scale

HI

Hemorrhagic infarction

IA

Intra-arterial

ICH

Intracerebral hemorrhage

IMS

Interventional Management of Stroke

IV

Intravenous

IVH

Intraventricular hemorrhage

MERCI

Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Embolism

MISTIE

Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus t-PA for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mRS

Modified Rankin Scale

NIHSS

National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

NINDS

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

rt-PA

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

SEM

Standard error of mean

sICH

Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage

SLEUTH

Safety of Lysis with EKOS Ultrasound in the Treatment of ICH and ICH

TCCD

Transcranial color-coded Doppler

TCCS

Transcranial color-coded sonography

TCD

Transcranial Doppler

TRUMBI

Transcranial Low-Frequency Ultrasound-Mediated Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia

TUSCAN

Transcranial Ultrasound in Clinical Sonothrombolysis

UCA

Ultrasound contrast agent

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azita Soltani
    • 1
  • Wayne M. Clark
    • 2
  • Douglas R. Hansmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Development DepartmentEKOS CorporationBothellUSA
  2. 2.Oregon Stroke Center, Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA

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