Association of the use of proton pump inhibitors with adverse cardiovascular and bleeding outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in the Japanese real world clinical practice
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- Kimura, T., Morimoto, T., Furukawa, Y. et al. Cardiovasc Interv and Ther (2011) 26: 222. doi:10.1007/s12928-011-0063-2
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the effects of concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of PPI-use in patients treated with thienopyridines after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a large Japanese observational database. Among 12446 patients discharged alive on thienopyridines (ticlopidine 90.4% and clopidogrel 9.6%), 3223 patients were treated with PPIs and 9223 patients without PPI at the time of hospital discharge. The PPI group included more patients with co-morbidities than the non-PPI group. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of PPI-use for a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.47, p = 0.002). The adjusted HR of PPI-use for bleeding was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05–1.52, p = 0.013). Cardiovascular and bleeding outcomes were not different among the three groups receiving three different types of PPI. The negative effect of PPI on cardiovascular outcome was consistently seen in both drug-eluting stent (DES) [HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.07–1.6, p = 0.0097)] and non-DES strata [HR 1.25 (95% CI: 0.99–1.57, p = 0.057)] (Interaction p = 0.79) despite the fact that the duration of thienopyridine administration was significantly longer in patients receiving DES. In conclusion, cardiovascular outcomes after PCI were significantly worse in patients with PPI than in patients without PPI in the Japanese real clinical practice. However, the observed poorer cardiovascular outcome in patients receiving PPI was most likely to be related to residual confounding and seemed not causally related to attenuation of antiplatelet effect of thienopyridine through interaction with PPI.