Journal of Community Genetics

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 51–55 | Cite as

Association of DD genotype of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (I/D) polymorphism with hypertension among a North Indian population

  • Garima Rana
  • Suniti Yadav
  • Shipra Joshi
  • K. N. SaraswathyEmail author
Original Article


Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic predisposition to the risk of developing hypertension due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion(I)/deletion(D) polymorphism (through altered serum ACE activity) is well documented among various populations. The present study investigated the possible association between ACE (DD) genotype and hypertension using a nested case-control study design including 451 individuals (of either sex in the age group 30–65 years) from a rural North Indian population practicing agriculture and lacto-vegetarianism. Blood Pressure was classified using JNC-7 criterion. Age- and sex-matched individuals were selected from normotensive (N-122), pre-hypertensive (N-123), hypertensive not on medication (N-122), and hypertensive on medication (N-84) categories. Amplification of DNA and genotyping of PCR product was done using standard protocols. From the analysis, comparatively higher frequency of individuals with DD genotype in the hypertensive category was observed, indicating a possible relation between DD genotype and hypertension. The odds ratio analysis revealed 2.225 (1.13–4.37)-fold significant increased risk for hypertension among cases, validating the vulnerability of individuals with DD genotype towards hypertension. Thus, the present study highlights the increased risk for developing hypertension due to ACE DD genotype in the studied population.


Hypertension Pre-hypertension ACE I/D polymorphism Cardiovascular disorders Lacto-vegetarian diet 



The authors would like to acknowledge Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science of Technology, Government of India, for financial assistance and all the participants in the present study for their cooperation. The authors would also like to express sincere gratitude to Prof. P. K. Ghosh and Prof. V. R. Rao for their timely suggestions during the entire study period.

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

12687_2017_321_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garima Rana
    • 1
  • Suniti Yadav
    • 1
  • Shipra Joshi
    • 1
  • K. N. Saraswathy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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