Advertisement

Journal of Community Genetics

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 273–284 | Cite as

Consanguinity, endogamy, and genetic disorders in Tunisia

  • Nizar Ben HalimEmail author
  • Nissaf Ben Alaya Bouafif
  • Lilia Romdhane
  • Rym Kefi Ben Atig
  • Ibtissem Chouchane
  • Yosra Bouyacoub
  • Imen Arfa
  • Wafa Cherif
  • Sonia Nouira
  • Faten Talmoudi
  • Khaled Lasram
  • Sana Hsouna
  • Welid Ghazouani
  • Hela Azaiez
  • Leila El Matri
  • Abdelmajid Abid
  • Neji Tebib
  • Marie-Françoise Ben Dridi
  • Salem Kachboura
  • Ahlem Amouri
  • Mourad Mokni
  • Saida Ben Arab
  • Koussay Dellagi
  • Sonia AbdelhakEmail author
Country Report

Introduction

Consanguinity refers to marriages between individuals who share at least one common ancestor. In clinical genetics, a consanguineous marriage is defined as a union between two individuals who are related as second cousins or closer, with the inbreeding coefficient (F) equal or higher than 0.0156 (Bittles 2001). However, reports on consanguinity rates may sometimes include marriages between third cousins or more distantly related individuals (Hamamy 2011). It is estimated that more than 690 million people in the world are consanguineous (Bittles and Black 2010). Middle East, Northern Africa, and South Asia are regions that have historically and culturally had a high rate of consanguineous unions (Al-Awadi et al. 1985; Al-Gazali et al. 1997; Jaber et al. 1997; Bittles et al. 2002; Bener and Alali 2006). Recent studies have shown that 20 % to 50 % of marriages in Arab countries are between relatives (Tadmouri et al. 2009; Bittles 2011; Hamamy et al. 2011). The rate was 68 %...

Keywords

Autosomal Recessive Disorder Consanguineous Marriage Autosomal Recessive Disease Autosomal Recessive Allele Tunisian Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the patients and their family members and to acknowledge all the members of the Laboratory LR11IPT05 and collaborators for their valuable contribution in this work. We would like also to express our sincere gratitude to Professor Noureddine Chalbi for his supervision and guidance. The authors are also grateful to Mrs. Kawther Ben Romdhane for proofreading this manuscript. This study was supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, the Tunisian Ministry of Health, the NEPAD/NABNet T2D project, and EMRO-COMSTECH RAB&GH grant.

References

  1. Abdulrazzaq YM, Bener A, Al-Gazali LI, al-Khayat AI, Micallef R, Gaber T (1997) A study of possible deleterious effects of consanguinity. Clin Genet 51:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo-Whitehouse K, Gulland F, Greig D, Amos W (2003) Inbreeding: disease susceptibility in California sea lions. Nature 422:35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad WI (1994) Reflections on the consanguinity and birth outcome debate. J Public Health Med 16:423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Awadi SA, Moussa MA, Naguib KK, Farag TI, Teebi AS, El-Khalifa M, El-Dossary L (1985) Consanguinity among the Kuwaiti population. Clin Genet 27:483–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Awadi SA, Naguib KK, Moussa MA, Farag TI, Teebi AS, El-Khalifa MY (1986) The effect of consanguineous marriages on reproductive wastage. Clin Genet 29:384–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Gazali LI, Bener A, Abdulrazzaq YM, Micallef R, Al-Khayat AI, Gaber T (1997) Consanguineous marriages in the United Arab Emirates. J Biosoc Sci 29:491–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Khabory M, Patton MA (2008) Consanguinity and deafness in Omani children. Int J Audiol 47:30–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alwan AA, Modell B (1997) Community control of genetic and congenital disorders. EMRO Tech Pub Ser 24Google Scholar
  9. Alzolibani A (2009) Genetic epidemiology and heritability of vitiligo in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panon Adriat 18:119–125Google Scholar
  10. Başaran N, Sayli BS, Başaran A, Solak M, Artan S, Stevenson JD (1988) Consanguineous marriages in the Turkish population. Clin Genet 34:339–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben Arab S, Chalbi N (1984) Consanguinity and its effects in the Governorate of Bizerte (French). Tunis Med 62:551–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben Arab S, Masmoudi S, Beltaief N, Hachicha S, Ayadi H (2004) Consanguinity and endogamy in Northern Tunisia and its impact on non-syndromic deafness. Genet Epidemiol 27:74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben M’Rad A (1986) Demographic situation in Tunisia at the end of 1985. Study Series I.N.S, Tunis, p 66Google Scholar
  14. Ben Mrad L, Chalbi N (2004) Is the matrimonial choice transmittable in Tunisia? Anthropo 7:31–37Google Scholar
  15. Ben Mrad L, Chalbi N (2006) Locality of residence origin of the spouses and consanguinity in Tunisia. Anthropo 12:63–71Google Scholar
  16. Bener A, Alali KA (2006) Consanguineous marriage in a newly developed country: the Qatari population. J Biosoc Sci 38:239–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bener A, Hussain R (2006) Consanguineous unions and child health in the State of Qatar. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 20:372–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bener A, Abdulrazzaq YM, Al-Gazali LI, Micallef R, Al-Khayat AI, Gaber T (1996) Consanguinity and associated socio-demographic factors in the United Arab Emirates. Hum Hered 46:256–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bener A, Denic S, Al-Mazrouei M (2001) Consanguinity and family history of cancer in children with leukemia and lymphomas. Cancer 92:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bener A, El Ayoubi HR, Chouchane L, Ali AI, Al-Kubaisi A, Al-Sulaiti H, Teebi AS (2009) Impact of consanguinity on cancer in a highly endogamous population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 10:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bittles AH (2001) Consanguinity and its relevance to clinical genetics. Clin Genet 60:89–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bittles AH (2002) Endogamy, consanguinity and community genetics. J Genet 81:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bittles AH (2003) The bases of Western attitudes to consanguineous marriage. Dev Med Child Neurol 45:135–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bittles AH (2005) Endogamy, consanguinity and community disease profiles. Community Genet 8:17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bittles AH (2008) A community genetics perspective on consanguineous marriage. Community Genet 11:324–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bittles AH (2011) The global prevalence of consanguinity. http://www.consang.net. Accessed June 2011
  27. Bittles AH, Black ML (2010) Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: consanguinity, human evolution, and complex diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1779–1786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bittles AH, Neel JV (1994) The costs of human inbreeding and their implications for variations at the DNA level. Nat Genet 8:117–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bittles AH, Grant JC, Sullivan SG, Hussain R (2002) Does inbreeding lead to decreased human fertility? Ann Hum Biol 29:111–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Campbell H, Rudan I, Bittles AH, Wright AF (2009) Human population structure, genome autozygosity and human health. Genome Med 28:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carothers AD, Rudan I, Kolcic I, Polasek O, Hayward C, Wright AF, Campbell H, Teague P, Hastie ND, Weber JL (2006) Estimating human inbreeding coefficients: comparison of genealogical and marker heterozygosity approaches. Ann Hum Genet 70:666–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Kimura M, Barrai I (1966) The probability of consanguineous marriages. Genetics 54:37–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chalbi N, Zakaria D (1998) Models of family, endogamy and consanguinity in Tunis. Essais de mesure Famille et population 1:39–59Google Scholar
  34. Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B (1987) Inbreeding depression and its evolutionary consequences. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18:237–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Charlesworth B, Hughes KA (1996) Age-specific inbreeding depression and components of genetic variance in relation to the evolution of senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:6140–6145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chéhab G, Shalak W, Gerbaka B, Saliba Z (2006) Inflammatory heart diseases in childhood: Lebanese epidemiological survey. J Med Liban 54:124–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. El Gazzah L, Chalbi N, Ben Hamida M (1985) Effect of consanguinity on certain hereditary-degenerative spinocerebellar diseases in Tunisia (French). Tunis Med 63:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. El-Hazmi MA, Al-Swailem AR, Warsy AS, Al-Swailem AM, Sulaimani R, Al-Meshari AA (1995) Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian population. J Med Genet 32:623–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Farrer LA, Bowirrat A, Friedland RP, Waraska K, Korczyn AD, Baldwin CT (2003) Identification of multiple loci for Alzheimer disease in a consanguineous Israeli–Arab community. Hum Mol Genet 12:415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fay JC, Wyckoff GJ, Wu CI (2001) Positive and negative selection on the human genome. Genetics 158:1227–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gropman AL, Adams DR (2007) Atypical patterns of inheritance. Semin Ped Neurol 14:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunaid AA, Hummad NA, Tamim KA (2004) Consanguineous marriage in the capital city Sana'a, Yemen. J Biosoc Sci 36:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamamy H (2012) Consanguineous marriages: preconception consultation in primary health care settings. J Community Genet 3:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamamy H, Jamhawi L, Al-Darawsheh J, Ajlouni K (2005) Consanguineous marriages in Jordan: why is the rate changing with time? Clin Genet 67:511–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamamy HA, Masri AT, Al-Hadidy AM, Ajlouni KM (2007) Consanguinity and genetic disorders. Profile from Jordan. Saudi Med J 28:1015–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamamy H, Antonarakis SE, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Temtamy S, Romeo G, Ten Kate LP, Bennett RL, Shaw A, Megarbane A, Van DC, Bathija H, Fokstuen S, Engel E, Zlotogora J, Dermitzakis E, Bottani A, Dahoun S, Morris MA, Arsenault S, Aglan MS, Ajaz M, Alkalamchi A, Alnaqeb D, Alwasiyah MK, Anwer N, Awwad R, Bonnefin M, Corry P, Gwanmesia L, Karbani GA, Mostafavi M, Pippucci T, Ranza-Boscardin E, Reversade B, Sharif SM, Teeuw ME, Bittles AH (2011) Consanguineous marriages, pearls and perils: Geneva International Consanguinity Workshop report. Genet Med 13:841–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hijazi Z, Haider MZ (2001) Influence of consanguinity and IgE receptor genotypes on clinical manifestations of asthma in Kuwaiti children. J Trop Pediatr 47:13–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hussain R (1998) The impact of consanguinity and inbreeding on perinatal mortality in Karachi, Pakistan. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 12:370–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hussain R (1999) Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. J Biosoc Sci 31:449–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hussain R, Bittles AH, Sullivan S (2001) Consanguinity and early mortality in the Muslim populations of India and Pakistan. Am J Hum Biol 13:777–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jaber L, Shohat T, Rotter JI, Shohat M (1997) Consanguinity and common adult diseases in Israeli Arab communities. Am J Med Genet 70:346–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jaouad IC, Elalaoui SC, Sbiti A, Elkerh F, Belmahi L, Sefiani A (2009) Consanguineous marriages in Morocco and the consequence for the incidence of autosomal recessive disorders. J Biosoc Sci 41:575–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jurdi R, Saxena PC (2003) The prevalence and correlates of consanguineous marriages in Yemen: similarities and contrasts with other Arab countries. J Biosoc Sci 35:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kerkeni E, Monastiri K, Saket B, Guediche MN, Ben Cheikh H (2007) Interplay of socio-economic factors, consanguinity, fertility, and offspring mortality in Monastir, Tunisia. Croat Med J 48:701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Khlat M, Khoury M (1991) Inbreeding and diseases: demographic, genetic, and epidemiologic perspectives. Epidemiol Rev 13:28–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Khlat M, Halabi S, Khudr A, Der Kaloustian VM (1986) Perception of consanguineous marriages and their genetic effects among a sample of couples from Beirut. Am J Med Genet 25:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Khoury SA, Massad D (1992) Consanguineous marriage in Jordan. Am J Med Genet 43:769–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khoury MJ, Cohen BH, Chase GA, Diamond EL (1987) An epidemiologic approach to the evaluation of the effect of inbreeding on prereproductive mortality. Am J Epidemiol 125:251–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirin M, McQuillan R, Franklin CS, Campbell H, McKeigue PM, Wilson JF (2010) Genomic runs of homozygosity record population history and consanguinity. PLoS One 5:e13996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kumaramanickavel G, Joseph B, Vidhya A, Arokiasamy T, Shridhara Shetty N (2002) Consanguinity and ocular genetic diseases in South India: analysis of a five-year study. Community Genet 5:182–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lathrop M, Pison G (1982) Méthode statistique d'étude de l'endogamie. Application à l'étude du choix du conjoint chez les Peul Bandé. Population 37:513–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lencz T, Lambert C, DeRosse P, Burdick KE, Morgan TV, Kane JM, Kucherlapati R, Malhotra AK (2007) Runs of homozygosity reveal highly penetrant recessive loci in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19942–19947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mansour H, Klei L, Wood J, Talkowski M, Chowdari K, Fathi W, Eissa A, Yassin A, Salah H, Tobar S, El-Boraie H, Gaafar H, Elassy M, Ibrahim NE, El-Bahaei W, Elsayed M, Shahda M, El Sheshtawy E, El-Boraie O, El-Chennawi F, Devlin B, Nimgaonkar VL (2009) Consanguinity associated with increased risk for bipolar I disorder in Egypt. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150:879–885Google Scholar
  64. McQuillan R, Leutenegger AL, Abdel-Rahman R, Franklin CS, Pericic M, Barac-Lauc L, Smolej-Narancic N, Janicijevic B, Polasek O, Tenesa A, Macleod AK, Farrington SM, Rudan P, Hayward C, Vitart V, Rudan I, Wild SH, Dunlop MG, Wright AF, Campbell H, Wilson JF (2008) Runs of homozygosity in European populations. Am J Hum Genet 83:359–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mechri A, Rouissi K, Mehdi B, Khiari G, Abdelhak S, Gaha L (2007) Influence of consanguinity on clinical characteristics and affective disorders frequency in relatives of bipolar I patients (French). Tunis Med 85:951–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Miller EN, Fadl M, Mohamed HS, Elzein A, Jamieson SE, Cordell HJ, Peacock CS, Fakiola M, Raju M, Khalil EA, Elhassan A, Musa AM, Ibrahim ME, Blackwell JM (2007) Y chromosome lineage- and village-specific genes on chromosomes 1p22 and 6q27 control visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. PLoS Genet 3:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mokhtar MM, Abdel-Fattah MM (2001) Consanguinity and advanced maternal age as risk factors for reproductive losses in Alexandria, Egypt. Eur J Epidemiol 17:559–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mokhtar MM, Kotb SM, Ismail SR (1998) Autosomal recessive disorders among patients attending the genetics clinic in Alexandria. East Mediterr Health J 4:470–497Google Scholar
  69. Mokhtari R, Amrita B (2003) Consanguinity, genetic disorders and malformation in the Iranian population. Acta Biol Szeged 47:47–50Google Scholar
  70. No authors listed (2006) The germinating seed of Arab genomics. Nat Genet 38:851Google Scholar
  71. Norio R (2003) Finnish Disease Heritage I: characteristics, causes, background. Hum Genet 112:441–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Nothnagel M, Lu TT, Kayser M, Krawczak M (2010) Genomic and geographic distribution of SNP-defined runs of homozygosity in Europeans. Hum Mol Genet 19:2927–2935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ouragini H, Cherif F, Kassar S, Floriddia G, Pascucci M, Daoud W, Osman-Dhahri AB, Boubaker S, Castiglia D, Abdelhak S (2009) Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa phenotypes in a large consanguineous Tunisian family. J Dermatol Sci 54:114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Papponen H, Toppinen T, Baumann P, Myllylä V, Leisti J, Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G, Myllylä R (1999) Founder mutations and the high prevalence of myotonia congenita in northern Finland. Neurology 53:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rajab AG, Patton MA, Modell B (2000) Study of hemoglobinopathies in Oman through a national register. Saudi Med J 21:1168–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rajkumar R, Kashyap VK (2004) Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups. BMC Genet 19:5–23Google Scholar
  77. Reddy MVV, Bindu H, Reddy P, Rani U (2006) Role of consanguinity in congenital neurosensory deafness. Indian J Hum Genet 6:357–358Google Scholar
  78. Riou S, El Younsi C, Chaabouni H (1989) Consanguinity in the population of northern Tunisia (French). Tunis Med 67:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Romdhane L, Abdelhak S, Research Unit on Molecular Investigation of Genetic Orphan Diseases; Collaborators (2011) Genetic diseases in the Tunisian population. Am J Med Genet A 155:238–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rudan I, Rudan D, Campbell H, Carothers A, Wright A, Smolej-Narancic N, Janicijevic B, Jin L, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Rudan P (2003) Inbreeding and risk of late onset complex disease. J Med Genet 40:925–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rudan I, Skarić-Jurić T, Smolej-Narancić N, Janićijević B, Rudan D, Klarić IM, Barać L, Pericić M, Galić R, Lethbridge-Cejku M, Rudan P (2004) Inbreeding and susceptibility to osteoporosis in Croatian island isolates. Coll Antropol 28:585–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rudan I, Campbell H, Carothers AD, Hastie ND, Wright AF (2006) Contribution of consanguinuity to polygenic and multifactorial diseases. Nat Genet 38:1224–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Saadat M, Ansari-Lari M, Farhud DD (2004) Consanguineous marriage in Iran. Ann Hum Biol 31:263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Soliman AT, El Zalabany MM, Bappal B, AlSalmi I, De Silva V, Asfour M (1999) Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, mode of presentation, pathogenesis and growth. Indian J Pediatr 66:363–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stoltenberg C, Magnus P, Skrondal A, Lie RT (1999) Consanguinity and recurrence risk of birth defects: a population-based study. Am J Med Genet 82:423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sueyoshi S, Ohtsuka R (2003) Effects of polygyny and consanguinity on high fertility in the rural Arab population in South Jordan. J Biosoc Sci 35:513–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tadmouri GO, Al Ali MT, Al-Haj Ali S, Al Khaja N (2006) CTGA: the database for genetic disorders in Arab populations. Nucleic Acids Res 34:602–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tadmouri GO, Nair P, Obeid T, Al Ali MT, Al Khaja N, Hamamy HA (2009) Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs. Reprod Health 6:17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Taillemite JL, Daffos F, Joyé N, Forestier F, Portnoi MF, Capella-Pavlovsky M (1985) Fetal karyotyping of fetal blood obtained from the umbilical vein using ultrasound. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 14:315–319Google Scholar
  90. Tchen P, Bois E, Feingold J, Feingold N, Kaplan J (1977) Inbreeding in recessive diseases. Hum Genet 38:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Teebi AS (1994) Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait. J Med Genet 31:224–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Teebi AS, Farag TI (1996) Genetic disorders among Arab populations. Oxford monographs on medical genetics 30. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. Woods CG, Cox J, Springell K, Hampshire DJ, Mohamed MD, McKibbin M, Stern R, Raymond FL, Sandford R, Malik Sharif S, Karbani G, Ahmed M, Bond J, Clayton D, Inglehearn CF (2006) Quantification of homozygosity in consanguineous individuals with autosomal recessive disease. Am J Hum Genet 78:889–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wright S (1922) Coefficients of inbreeding and relationship. Am Nat 56:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wright A, Charlesworth B, Rudan I, Carothers A, Campbell H (2003) A polygenic basis for late-onset disease. Trends Genet 19:97–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yunis K, Mumtaz G, Bitar F, Chamseddine F, Kassar M, Rashkidi J, Makhoul G, Tamim H (2006) Consanguineous marriage and congenital heart defects: a case–control study in the neonatal period. Am J Med Genet A 140:1524–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Zlotogora J (1997a) Dominance and homozygosity. Am J Med Genet 68:412–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zlotogora J (1997b) Genetic disorders among Palestinian Arabs: 1. Effects of consanguinity. Am J Med Genet 68:472–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zlotogora J, Hujerat Y, Barges S, Shalev SA, Chakravarti A (2007) The fate of 12 recessive mutations in a single village. Ann Hum Genet 71:202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nizar Ben Halim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nissaf Ben Alaya Bouafif
    • 2
  • Lilia Romdhane
    • 1
  • Rym Kefi Ben Atig
    • 1
  • Ibtissem Chouchane
    • 3
  • Yosra Bouyacoub
    • 1
  • Imen Arfa
    • 1
  • Wafa Cherif
    • 1
  • Sonia Nouira
    • 1
  • Faten Talmoudi
    • 1
    • 7
  • Khaled Lasram
    • 1
  • Sana Hsouna
    • 1
  • Welid Ghazouani
    • 1
  • Hela Azaiez
    • 1
  • Leila El Matri
    • 3
  • Abdelmajid Abid
    • 1
    • 4
  • Neji Tebib
    • 5
  • Marie-Françoise Ben Dridi
    • 5
  • Salem Kachboura
    • 6
  • Ahlem Amouri
    • 1
    • 7
  • Mourad Mokni
    • 8
  • Saida Ben Arab
    • 9
  • Koussay Dellagi
    • 10
  • Sonia Abdelhak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biomedical Genomics and OncogeneticsPasteur Institute of TunisTunisTunisia
  2. 2.Laboratory of EpidemiologyPasteur Institute of TunisTunisTunisia
  3. 3.Oculogenetics Research UnitHedi Rais Institute of OphthalmologyTunisTunisia
  4. 4.National Institute of NutritionTunisTunisia
  5. 5.Inherited Metabolic Diseases Unit, Pediatric DepartmentLa Rabta HospitalTunisTunisia
  6. 6.Research Unit UR 09/04, Cardiology DepartmentAbderahman Mami HospitalArianaTunisia
  7. 7.Department of Histology and CytogeneticsPasteur Institute of TunisTunisTunisia
  8. 8.Research Unit on Hereditary Keratinization Disorders, Department of DermatologyLa Rabta HospitalTunisTunisia
  9. 9.Unity of Genetic and Molecular EpidemiologyFaculty of MedicineTunisTunisia
  10. 10.Laboratory of Immunopathology, Vaccinology and Molecular GeneticsPasteur Institute of TunisTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations