A highly informative microsatellite panel for individual identification and sex determination of jungle cats (Felis chaus)
- 285 Downloads
The jungle cat (Felis chaus), a small-sized felid, is distributed across Southeast and South Asia to Egypt in Africa. In India, it is one of the most common small cat species but no reliable methods are available to monitor its population status. We describe a non-invasive genetic monitoring technique using fecal samples for individual identification and sex determination of jungle cats. We evaluated 21 feline microsatellites and optimized a panel of 11 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci that yield a cumulative Probability of Identity between siblings value of 5.51×10−6. We used this panel to identify 110 individuals from 118 jungle cat scats collected from tiger reserves in Central India. We identified 22 males and 35 females by amplifying a fragment of the Amelogenin protein gene. This panel will be helpful to study genetic structure, gene flow, relatedness, sex ratio, and population estimation in jungle cats.
KeywordsNoninvasive DNA sampling Felis chaus Individual identification Microsatellite Sex assignment
Funding was provided by the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), Friends of the National Zoo, Kathryn Fuller science for nature fund of World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Bear Association, and George Mason University. We thank the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF) Wildlife, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and field directors and staff of all five tiger reserves (Kanha, Satpura, Melghat, Pench MP and Mh) for providing research permissions and logistical help. We thank Robert Fleischer, Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics, SCBI, and Yogesh S. Shouche, National Center for Cell Sciences (NCCS), Pune, Maharashtra, India, for providing laboratory space and facilitating lab work; Nancy Rotzel, Libby Dougan, and Hitendra Munot for logistical support, and Susan Lumpkin for editorial comments. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for suggestions that greatly improved the quality of this manuscript.
- Dutta T, Sharma S, Maldonado JE, Wood TC, Panwar HS, Seidensticker J (2012b) Fine-scale population genetic structure in a wide-ranging carnivore, the leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in central India. Divers Distrib 1–12. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12024
- Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) Genepop (Version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86:248–249Google Scholar
- Valière N (2002) GIMLET: a computer program for analyzing genetic individual identification data. Mol Ecol Notes 2:377–379Google Scholar
- Vanak AT, Mukherjee S (2008) Identification of scat of Indian fox, jungle cat and golden jackal based on morphometrics. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 105:212Google Scholar
- Waits L (2004) Using noninvasive genetic sampling to detect and estimate abundance of rare wildlife species. In: Thompson WL (ed) Sampling rare or elusive species: concepts, designs, and techniques for estimating population parameters, 1st edn. Island Press, Washington, pp 211–228Google Scholar