Characterisation of twenty-one European badger (Meles meles) microsatellite loci facilitates the discrimination of second-order relatives
The European badger (Meles meles) breeds plurally in lowland England and is important economically due to its link with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission. To understand disease transmission and facilitate effective management, it is vital to elucidate the social structure of badger groups. To improve parentage assignment and the discrimination of relatives, we isolated and characterised 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 24 individuals from Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK. These 21 loci increased the discrimination power between full-siblings and half-siblings from 71 to 88%, when added to the existing 31 loci. Similarly, the combined non-exclusion probability increased from 3.0 × 10−8 to 5.8 × 10−13. Newly isolated Mel-592 (FR745854) was X-linked, based on the genotypes of 48 known-sex individuals and will enhance the genetic sex-typing of badgers.
KeywordsEuropean badger Meles meles Mustelidae Microsatellite Parentage X-chromosome linked locus
- Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Roy Statist Ser B 57:289–300Google Scholar
- Glenn TC, Schable NA (2005) Isolating microsatellite DNA loci. In: Zimmer EA, Roalson EH (eds) Methods in enzymology 395, molecular evolution: producing the biochemical data, Part B. Elsevier Academic Press Inc, San Diego, pp 202–222Google Scholar
- Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Heredity 86:248–249Google Scholar
- Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) PRIMER3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology. Human Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar