Conservation Genetics Resources

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 515–518 | Cite as

Characterisation of twenty-one European badger (Meles meles) microsatellite loci facilitates the discrimination of second-order relatives

  • Geetha Annavi
  • Deborah A. Dawson
  • Gavin J. Horsburgh
  • Carolyn Greig
  • Hannah L. Dugdale
  • Chris Newman
  • David W. Macdonald
  • Terry Burke
Technical Note

Abstract

The European badger (Meles meles) breeds plurally in lowland England and is important economically due to its link with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission. To understand disease transmission and facilitate effective management, it is vital to elucidate the social structure of badger groups. To improve parentage assignment and the discrimination of relatives, we isolated and characterised 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 24 individuals from Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK. These 21 loci increased the discrimination power between full-siblings and half-siblings from 71 to 88%, when added to the existing 31 loci. Similarly, the combined non-exclusion probability increased from 3.0 × 10−8 to 5.8 × 10−13. Newly isolated Mel-592 (FR745854) was X-linked, based on the genotypes of 48 known-sex individuals and will enhance the genetic sex-typing of badgers.

Keywords

European badger Meles meles Mustelidae Microsatellite Parentage X-chromosome linked locus 

Supplementary material

12686_2011_9392_MOESM1_ESM.doc (58 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 58 kb)

References

  1. Armour JAL, Neumann R, Gobert S, Jeffreys AJ (1994) Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection. Hum Mol Genet 3:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Roy Statist Ser B 57:289–300Google Scholar
  3. Bijlsma R, van de Vilet M, Pertoldi C, van Apeldoorn RC, van de Zande L (2000) Microsatellite primers from the Eurasian badger, Meles meles. Mol Ecol 9:2216–2217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blouin MS (2003) DNA-based methods for pedigree reconstruction and kinship analysis in natural populations. Trends Ecol Evol 18:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpenter PJ, Dawson DA, Greig C, Parham A, Cheeseman CL, Burke T (2003) Isolation of 39 polymorphic microsatellite loci and the development of a fluorescently labelled marker set for the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) (Carnivore: Mustelidae). Mol Ecol Notes 3:610–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carpenter PJ, Pope LC, Greig C, Dawson DA, Rogers LM, Erven K, Wilson GJ, Delahay RJ, Cheeseman CL, Burke T (2005) Mating system of the European badger, Meles meles, in a high density population. Mol Ecol 14:273–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Domingo-Roura X, Macdonald DW, Roy MS, Marmi J, Terradas J, Rogers LM, Woodroffe R, Burke T, Wayne RK (2003) Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data. Mol Ecol 12:533–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dugdale HL, Macdonald DW, Pope LC, Burke T (2007) Polygynandry, extra-group paternity an multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups. Mol Ecol 16:5294–5306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dugdale HL, Macdonald DW, Pope LC, Johnson PJ, Burke T (2008) Reproductive skew and relatedness in social groups of European badgers, Meles meles. Mol Ecol 16:5294–5306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dugdale HL, Ellwood SA, Macdonald DW (2010) Alloparental behaviour and long-term costs of mothers tolerating other members of the group in a plurally breeding mammal. Anim Behav 80:719–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glenn TC, Schable NA (2005) Isolating microsatellite DNA loci. In: Zimmer EA, Roalson EH (eds) Methods in enzymology 395, molecular evolution: producing the biochemical data, Part B. Elsevier Academic Press Inc, San Diego, pp 202–222Google Scholar
  12. Huck M, Frantz AC, Dawson DA, Burke T, Roper TJ (2008) Low genetic variability, female biased dispersal and high movement rates in an urban population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). J Appl Ecol 77:905–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kalinowski ST, Taper ML, Marshall TC (2007) Revising how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases success in paternity assignment. Mol Ecol 16:1099–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McDonald RA, Delahay RJ, Carter SP, Smith GC, Cheeseman CL (2008) Perturbing implications of wildlife ecology for disease control. Trends Ecol Evol 23:53–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pope LC, Butlin RK, Wilson GJ, Woodroffe R, Erven K, Conyers CM, Franklin T, Delahay RJ, Cheeseman CL, Burke T (2007) Genetic evidence that culling increases badger movement: implications for the spread of bovine tuberculosis. Mol Ecol 16:4919–4929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Heredity 86:248–249Google Scholar
  17. Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) PRIMER3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology. Human Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
  18. Toouli CD, Turner DR, Grist SA, Morley AA (2000) The effect of cycle number and target size on polymerase chain reaction amplification of polymorphic repetitive sequences. Anal Biochem 280:324–326 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R (1991) Chelex® 100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques 10:506–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang J (2006) Informativeness of genetic markers for pair wise relationship and relatedness inference. Theor Popul Biol 70:300–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geetha Annavi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deborah A. Dawson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Gavin J. Horsburgh
    • 1
  • Carolyn Greig
    • 3
  • Hannah L. Dugdale
    • 1
    • 4
  • Chris Newman
    • 2
  • David W. Macdonald
    • 2
  • Terry Burke
    • 1
  1. 1.NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility (NBAF), Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffield, South YorkshireUK
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Recanati-Kaplan CentreUniversity of Oxford Tubney, Abingdon, OxfordshireUK
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  4. 4.Animal Ecology and Theoretical Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary StudiesUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations