Advertisement

Isolation, characterisation and cross amplification of thirteen microsatellite loci for coral endo-symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium clade C)

  • Line Kolind BayEmail author
  • Emily J. Howells
  • Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
Technical Note

Abstract

The health and productivity of coral reefs is underpinned by the symbiosis between corals and dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.). To enable population genetic analyses of Symbiodinium spp, required for coral reef conservation, seven microsatellite loci were isolated from Symbiodinium clade C from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. These microsatellite primer pairs consistently amplified between 1 and 8 alleles per coral host colony, with mean number of alleles ranging from 1.9 to 4.0 and generally high genetic diversities (Shannon’s Index = 0.71–2.76). The novel microsatellite loci amplified between 1 and 10 alleles in four other C strains, but did not amplify a D strain. Three of six previously published clade C microsatellite loci amplified 1–6 alleles in two or more of five C strains tested. The primers and cross amplifications presented here therefore provide a useful tool for elucidating the population genetic structure of clade C Symbiodinium populations.

Keywords

Symbiodinium Coral endo-symbiont Microsatellite 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Marine and Tropical Science Research Facility, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and the Queensland Government. We thank the following for collection of coral samples: A. Lutz (coral sperm), R. Berkelmans (A. millepora samples), P. Warner (S. hystrix GBR samples), T. Cooper (S. hystrix WA samples). We also thank J. Doyle and A. Muirhead for assistance with DNA extractions and Symbiodinium strain determination. Samples collected to characterize microsatellites were collected under permit number G06/15571.1.

References

  1. Apprill AM, Gates RD (2007) Recognizing diversity in coral symbiotic dinoflagellate communities. Mol Ecol 16:1127–1134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker A (2003) Flexibility and specificity in coral–algal symbiosis: diversity, ecology, and biogeography of Symbiodinium. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 34:661–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berkelmans R, van Oppen MJH (2006) The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a ‘nugget of hope’ for coral reefs in an era of climate change. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol 273:2305–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cantin NE, van Oppen MJH, Willis BL, Mieog JC, Negri AP (2009) Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high performance algal endosymbionts. Coral Reefs 28:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coffroth MA, Santos SR (2005) Genetic diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Protist 156:19–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Drew EA (1972) The biology and physiology of algal–invertebrate symbiosis. II. The density of algal cells in a number of hermatypic hard corals and alcyonarians from various depths. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 9:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Glenn TC, Schable NA (2005) Isolating microsatellite DNA loci. Method Enzymol 395:202–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Howells E, van Oppen MJH, Willis B (2009) High genetic differentiation and cross-shelf patterns of genetic diversity among great barrier reef populations of Symbiodinium. Coral Reefs 28:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke C, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackson JBC, Kleypas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nystrom M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Jones AM, Berkelmans R, van Oppen MJH, Mieog JC, Sinclair W (2008) A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol 275:1359–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. LaJeunesse TC, Bhagooli R, Hidaka M, DeVantier L, Done T, Schmidt GW, Fitt WK, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2004) Closely related Symbiodinium spp. differ in relative dominance in coral reef host communities across environmental, latitudinal and biogeographic gradients. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 284(14):7–161Google Scholar
  12. Little AF, van Oppen MJH, Willis BL (2004) Flexibility in algal endosymbiosis shapes growth in reef corals. Science 304:1492–1494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Magalon H, Samadi S, Richard M, Adjeroud M, Veuille M (2004) Development of coral and zooxanthella-specific microsatellites in three species of Pocillopora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from French Polynesia. Mol Ecol Notes 4:206–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mieog JC, van Oppen MJH, Cantin NE, Stam WT, Olsen JL (2007) Real-time PCR reveals a high incidence of Symbiodinium clade D at low levels in four scleractinian corals across the Great Barrier Reef: implications for symbiont shuffling. Coral Reefs 26:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pettay DT, LaJeunesse TC (2007) Microsatellites from clade B Symbiodinium spp. specialized for Caribbean corals in the genus Madracis. Mol Ecol Notes 7:1271–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rozen S, Skaletsky H (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
  17. Sambrook J, Russell DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Santos SR, Coffroth MA (2003) Molecular genetic evidence that dinoflagellates belong to the genus Symbiodinium Freudenthal are haploid. Biol Bull 204:10–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Santos SR, Gutierrez-Rodriguez C, Lasker HR, Coffroth MA (2003) Symbiodinium sp. associations in the gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae in the Bahamas: high levels of genetic diversity and population structure in symbiotic dinoflagellates. Mar Biol 143:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. van Oppen MJH, Palstra FP, Piquet AMT, Miller DJ (2001) Patterns of coral–dinoflagellate associations in Acropora: significance of local availability and physiology of Symbiodinium strains and host–symbiont selectivity. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol 268:1759–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Line Kolind Bay
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emily J. Howells
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
    • 2
  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef StudiesTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Marine Microbiology and GeneticsAustralian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.School of Marine and Tropical BiologyJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  4. 4.AIMS@JCUJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations