HMGB1 in Hormone-Related Cancer: a Potential Therapeutic Target
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a dynamic nuclear protein participating in transcription, chromatin remodelling, and DNA recombination and repair processes. Accumulating evidence indicates that its function now extends beyond the nucleus, notably its extracellular role in inflammation. HMGB1 is implicated as a late mediator of sepsis and is also believed to promote atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, deregulation of HMGB1 is shown to be associated with the hallmarks of cancer development. Moreover, several clinical studies have shown that HMGB1 is a promising biomarker for a variety of cancer types. In this review, we provide novel insights into the role and mechanisms of HMGB1, in particular, to hormone-related cancers and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target.