Hormones and Cancer

, Volume 3, Issue 5–6, pp 240–248 | Cite as

Migraine History, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Use, and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial Cancer

  • Amanda I. PhippsEmail author
  • Garnet L. Anderson
  • Barbara B. Cochrane
  • Christopher I. Li
  • Jean Wactawski-Wende
  • Gloria Y. F. Ho
  • Mary Jo O’Sullivan
  • Polly A. Newcomb
Original Paper


Endometrial cancer is primarily a hormonally mediated disease. As such, factors that mediate or reflect exposure to estrogens, or that mediate response to such exposure, may plausibly be associated with endometrial cancer risk. History of migraines, another hormonally mediated condition, has recently been associated with a reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer; however, the relationship between migraines and endometrial cancer has not previously been explored. We evaluated the relationship between migraine history and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women, considering also the potential impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, given the relationship of NSAIDs to hormones and to migraine history. We identified 93,384 women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort who had an intact uterus at the time of study entry. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed risk of endometrial cancer during study follow-up according to history of migraines and according to current NSAID use at the time of study entry, adjusting for age, study arm, race, and hormone therapy use. We also evaluated interaction in these associations by body mass index. Having a history of migraines was not associated with endometrial cancer risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.75–1.11], regardless of body mass index (BMI) or NSAID use status. Similarly, current NSAID use was not associated with endometrial cancer risk (HR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 0.88–1.16), regardless of BMI. Migraine history and NSAID use do not appear to be associated with risk of endometrial cancer.


Migraine Endometrial Cancer Nsaid User Endometrial Cancer Risk Combine Estrogen 
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Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda I. Phipps
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Garnet L. Anderson
    • 2
    • 5
  • Barbara B. Cochrane
    • 2
    • 6
  • Christopher I. Li
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jean Wactawski-Wende
    • 7
  • Gloria Y. F. Ho
    • 8
  • Mary Jo O’Sullivan
    • 9
  • Polly A. Newcomb
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Public Health Sciences DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Public Health Sciences DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Public Health Sciences DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biostatistics, School of Public HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Department of Family and Child Nursing, School of NursingUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at BuffaloThe State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  8. 8.Department of Epidemiology and Population HealthAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  9. 9.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Research and Special ProjectsUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

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