Hormones and Cancer

, Volume 1, Issue 5, pp 265–276 | Cite as

Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

  • Xiaohui Cui
  • Bernard Rosner
  • Walter C. Willett
  • Susan E. Hankinson
Article

Abstract

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women.

Keywords

Gonadal steroid hormones Insulin-like growth factor I Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 Dietary fats Dietary fiber Dietary carbohydrates 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

DHEA sulfate

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP

IGF-binding protein

NHS

Nurses’ health study

SHBG

Sex hormone binding globulin

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaohui Cui
    • 1
  • Bernard Rosner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Walter C. Willett
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Susan E. Hankinson
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Channing Laboratory, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of NutritionHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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