, Volume 10, Issue 12, pp 2661–2672 | Cite as

The Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the State Mindfulness Scale

  • Carla AndradeEmail author
  • Patrícia Arriaga
  • Marina Carvalho



This study examined the psychometric properties of the State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) in a sample of the Portuguese population.


To test the validity and reliability of SMS, a survey was administered to 287 participants (236 women; aged between 18 and 71 years old) with and without previous mindfulness practice. Two weeks after the first assessment, 41 participants were evaluated to test the stability of the SMS.


Consistent with contemporary psychological models of mindfulness, the confirmatory factor analyses supported a hierarchical structure entailing one second-order state mindfulness factor and two first-order factors: one related to body sensations and the other reflecting mental events. The two first-order dimensions of state mindfulness correlated positively with the dimensions of observe, nonreactivity, and describe of the dispositional mindfulness scale. The SMS global scores were independent of emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal, and of social desirability. The SMS showed acceptable internal and test-retest reliability.


Overall, the Portuguese version of the scale has acceptable psychometric qualities and can be used to measure mindfulness states, regardless of previous mindfulness practice.


Mindfulness State Mindfulness Scale Reliability Validity 


Author Contributions

All authors contributed to the study design and data collection was performed by Carla Andrade. All authors discussed the results and contributed equally to the final manuscript.

Funding Information

The study was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through the Research Center CIS-IUL (Ref. UID/PSI/ 03125/2013).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments, and were approved by the Ethical Committee of ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (approval number 04/2017).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, CIS-IULLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes (ISMAT)PortimãoPortugal

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