, Volume 10, Issue 12, pp 2647–2660 | Cite as

Examining the Link Between Mindfulness and Temporal Perspective

  • Mojan Naisani Samani
  • Michael A. BusseriEmail author



Despite mindfulness being defined as a present-focused awareness of one’s moment-to-moment experiences, there has been little research investigating its relation to temporal perspective in terms of individual’s thoughts and feelings concerning their past, present, and future lives.


The current study employed an online sample of 305 American adults (M age = 30.61, SD = 3.42; 55% female) to examine a five-factor model of mindfulness in relation to multiple components of temporal perspective: evaluation, focus, distance, overlap, and value of one’s recollected past, present, and anticipated future lives.


Mindfulness factors were associated with aspects of temporal perspective encompassing all three temporal periods—including greater focus on the present, more positive evaluations of the present and future, and greater valuing of the present. Furthermore, a canonical correlation analysis (Wilk’s λ = 0.39, p < 0.001) identified two unique combinations of mindfulness, each linked with different aspects of temporal perspective (rs = 0.63 and 0.43; ps < 0.05). First, a mixture of greater awareness, nonjudgment, and describing was linked with greater focus on one’s present life and more positive evaluations of one’s past, present, and future lives. Second, a combination of greater nonreacting, observing, and describing was linked with greater focus on one’s past, present, and future lives.


Findings suggest that there is much to be gained by investigating mindfulness using a temporally expanded approach. Mindfulness is more than just a present-oriented construct but rather is linked in various ways with how individuals view their past, present, and future lives.


Mindfulness Temporal perspective Past Current Future 


Author Contributions

MNS designed the study and collected the data, assisted with data analyses, and wrote the first draft of the paper. MB collaborated with the design and the writing of the manuscript as well as analyzed the data. Both authors critically reviewed the manuscript prior to submission and approved of the final version.

Funding Information

This research was supported by an Insight Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada to the second author.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The participants in this study provided informed consent prior to participation. The study design and protocol were approved by the Research Ethics Board at Brock University, Canada.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DeGroote School of BusinessMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada

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