The Beneficial Role of Mindfulness Facets in Relatives of People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Providing support to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) can be a major source of stress for the family caregivers. It is therefore important to identify resilient and protective factors for caregivers. This study examined whether mindfulness facets predict over time fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression and better quality of life for the family caregivers of people with IDD.
A sample of 143 Spanish relatives of people with IDD (122 women and 21 men), aged between 18 and 78 (M = 46.87, SD = 12.16), participated in a two-time 6-month longitudinal study. Participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, quality of life, and mindfulness facets at the beginning of the study. Six months later, they again completed measures of psychological symptoms and quality of life.
The findings indicated that acting with awareness and non-reacting were the most beneficial mindfulness facets for caregivers. Acting with awareness predicted a reduction of anxiety (β = − 0.16, p < 0.01) and depression (β = − 0.17, p < 0.05) and an increase in quality of life (β = 0.19, p < 0.05) at the follow-up. Non-reacting predicted a reduction of anxiety (β = − 0.16, p < 0.05) and depression (β = − 0.13, p < 0.05) over time.
The results of the study show the beneficial role of mindfulness facets and suggest the importance of studying the effect of mindfulness-based interventions for the relatives of people with IDD.
KeywordsMindfulness Intellectual and developmental disabilities Family caregivers Relatives Anxiety Depression Quality of life Longitudinal
The authors thank the families and associations that gave up their time to take part in this study (Gaude, Gorabide, Amica, Asbibe School, Adicas, Aspanias, Fundación Síndrome de Down Pais Vasco, Apoyo Dravet, and others).
LO: assisted with the design of the study and data analyses and wrote the paper. EC: designed the study, analyzed the data, and collaborated with the writing and editing of the paper. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for submission.
This research was funded by the Basque Country Government (Refs. PRE_2018_2_006 and IT982-16).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All participants were informed and gave their consent before participating in the study.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Deusto (Ref. ETK-08/15/16).
- Azeem, M. W., Dogar, I. A., Shah, S., Cheema, M. A., Asmat, A., Akbar, M., ... Haider, I. I. (2013). Anxiety and depression among parents of children with intellectual disability in Pakistan. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 290–295.Google Scholar
- Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2015). Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents and caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: a community-based approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9836-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Sampedro, A. (2017). Does the acting with awareness trait of mindfulness buffer the predictive association between stressors and psychological symptoms in adolescents? Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 158–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cebolla, A., García-Palacios, A., Soler, J., Guillen, V., Baños, R., & Botella, C. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The European Journal of Psychiatry, 26, 118–126. https://doi.org/10.4321/S0213-61632012000200005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conner, C. M., & White, S. W. (2014). Stress in mothers of children with autism: trait mindfulness as a protective factor. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 617–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.02.001.
- Curtiss, J., & Klemanski, D. H. (2014). Teasing apart low mindfulness: Differentiating deficits in mindfulness and in psychological flexibility in predicting symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 166, 41–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.062.
- Cuskelly, M. (2006). Parents of adults with an intellectual disability. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Family Matters, 74, 20–25.Google Scholar
- Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-006-9035-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gartner, A., Lipsky, D. K., & Turnbull, A. P. (1991). Supporting families with a child with a disability: an international outlook. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Jones, L., Hastings, R. P., Totsika, V., Keane, L., & Rhule, N. (2014). Child behavior problems and parental well-being in families of children with autism: the mediating role of mindfulness and acceptance. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119, 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-119.2.171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lin, J. D., Hu, J., Yen, C. F., Hsu, S. W., Lin, L. P., Loh, C. H., et al. (2009). Quality of life in caregivers of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: use of WHOQOL-BREF survey. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1448–1458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2009.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lloyd, T., & Hastings, R. P. (2008). Psychological variables as correlates of adjustment in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2007.00974.x.Google Scholar
- Malhotra, S., Khan, W., & Bhatia, M. S. (2012). Quality of life of parents having children with developmental disabilities. Delhi Psychiatric Society, 15, 171–176 Google Scholar
- Meda, R. M., Herrero, M., Blanco-Donoso, L. M., Moreno-Jiménez, B., & Palomera, A. (2015). Propiedades psicométricas del “cuestionario de cinco facetas de la conciencia plena” (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQ-M) en México. Psicología Conductual, 23, 467–487.Google Scholar
- Oñate, L., & Calvete, E. (2018). Adaptation of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form to Spanish family caregivers of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 34, 305–313. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.2.294551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parish, S. L., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., & Floyd, F. (2004). Economic implications of caregiving at midlife: comparing parents with and without children who have developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 42, 413–426. https://doi.org/10.1352/0047-6765(2004)42%3C413:EIOCAM%3E2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., & Coffman, D. L. (2006). Computing power and minimum sample size for RMSEA [Computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org. Accessed 10 Sept 2018.
- Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Floyd, F. J., Pettee, Y., & Hong, J. (2001). Life course impacts of parenting a child with a disability. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 282–303. https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2001)106<0265:LCIOPA>2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
- Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., Sabaawi, M., Singh, J., & McAleavey, K. (2006). Mindful staff increase learning and reduce aggression in adults with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27, 545–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2005.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S., Singh, J., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., & McAleavey, K. M. (2007). Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 31, 749–771. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445507300924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M., & O'Connell, K. A. (2004). The World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Quality of Life Research, 13, 299–310. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:QURE.0000018486.91360.00.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Summers, J. A., Behr, S. K., & Turnbull, A. P. (1988). Positive adaptation and coping strengths of families who have children with disabilities. In G. H. S. Singer & L. K. Irvin (Eds.), Support for caregiving families: enabling positive adaptation to disability (pp. 27–40). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
- Tejero, A., Guimerá, E. M., Farré, J. M., & Peri, J. M. (1986). Clinical use of HADS in psychiatric samples: a sensitivity, reliability and validity study. Revista Departamento Psiquiatría Facultad de Medicina de Barcelona, 13, 233–238.Google Scholar
- van Son, J., Nyklíček, I., Nefs, G., Speight, J., Pop, V. J., & Pouwer, F. (2015). The association between mindfulness and emotional distress in adults with diabetes: could mindfulness serve as a buffer? Results from Diabetes MILES: The Netherlands. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 251–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-014-9592-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Veehof, M. M., ten Klooster, P. M., Taal, E., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 1045–1054. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-011-1690-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Williams, M., Teasdale, J., Segal, A., & Kabat Zinn, J. (2007). The mindful way through depression. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Wong, P. K. S., Fong, K. W., & Lam, T. L. (2015). Enhancing the resilience of parents of adults with intellectual disabilities through volunteering: an exploratory study. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12, 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar