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Mindfulness

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 724–736 | Cite as

The (Lack of) Replication of Self-Reported Mindfulness as a Mechanism of Change in Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Substance Use Disorders

  • Yu-Yu Hsiao
  • Davood Tofighi
  • Eric S. Kruger
  • M. Lee Van Horn
  • David P. MacKinnon
  • Katie WitkiewitzEmail author
ORIGINAL PAPER
  • 183 Downloads

Abstract

The development and evaluation of mindfulness-based interventions for a variety of psychological and medical disorders have grown exponentially over the past 20 years. Yet, calls for increasing the rigor of mindfulness research and recognition of the difficulties of conducting research on the topic of mindfulness have also increased. One of the major difficulties is the measurement of mindfulness, with varying definitions across studies and ambiguity with respect to the meaning of mindfulness. There is also concern about the reproducibility of findings given few attempts at replication. The current secondary analysis addressed the issue of reproducibility and robustness of the construct of self-reported mindfulness across two separate randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), as an aftercare treatment for substance use disorder. Specifically, we tested the robustness of our previously published findings, which identified a latent construct of mindfulness as a significant mediator of the effect of MBRP on reducing craving following treatment. First, we attempted to replicate the findings in a separate randomized clinical trial of MBRP. Second, we conducted sensitivity analyses to test the assumption of the no-omitted confounder bias in a mediation model. The effect of MBRP on self-reported mindfulness and overall mediation effect failed to replicate in a new sample. The effect of self-reported mindfulness in predicting craving following treatment did replicate and was robust to the no-omitted confounder bias. The results of this work shine a light on the difficulties in the measurement of mindfulness and the importance of examining the robustness of findings.

Keywords

Mindfulness Craving Substance use disorder Replicability Reproducibility Mediation Sensitivity analyses Mindfulness-based relapse prevention 

Notes

Author Contributions

YYH conducted the data analyses and wrote the results. DT collaborated with the design and execution of the study and conceptualizing the analyses. ESK, MLVH, and DPM collaborated with the analyses and editing of the final manuscript. KW designed and executed the study and wrote the introduction and discussion sections of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final editing of the manuscript.

Funding Information

The current study was funded by NIAAA R01 AA025539 (Witkiewitz and Tofighi, MPIs) and NIDA R37DA09757 (MacKinnon, PI).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in our study were approved by the institutional review board at the University of Washington.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants in the present study.

Supplementary material

12671_2018_1023_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 12 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Individual, Family and Community EducationUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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