Advertisement

Mindfulness

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Cognitive Emotional Regulation Strategies: Potential Mediators in the Relationship Between Mindfulness, Emotional Exhaustion, and Satisfaction?

  • Constance KaringEmail author
  • Andreas Beelmann
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

The main aim of the present study was to examine the mediation effects of the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, emotional distancing, and resignation, on the association between mindfulness, emotional exhaustion and study satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of student teachers from different universities in Germany (n = 236) and a sample of beginning teachers who were assessed during the German induction phase (the Referendariat, n = 112). Path analysis models were used to examine the associations between mindfulness, cognitive regulation strategies, emotional exhaustion, and study satisfaction. The findings of the current study showed that student teachers reported a higher level of mindfulness, emotional distancing, and study satisfaction than beginning teachers. Despite these differences between the both samples, the results demonstrated that the associations between mindfulness, cognitive regulation strategies, emotional exhaustion, and study satisfaction were similar for student teachers and beginning teachers. Emotional distancing, as adaptive strategy, partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and emotional exhaustion, whereas resignation, as a maladaptive strategy, was not a significant mediator. Findings suggest that stress prevention programs that combine mindfulness exercises and cognitive restructuring techniques (e.g., adaptive strategies) may be promising intervention for student teachers’ as well as beginning teachers’ mental health and well-being.

Keywords

Mindfulness Emotion regulation strategies Burnout Well-being Students 

Notes

Author Contributions

CK designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. AB collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in our study were approved by the institutional review board at the Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena and in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Participants gave informed consent through accessing the study online via a website link. The link was provided to participants who confirmed a wish to participate. All participants were given information about the study, researcher contact information, and a statement indicating that participation is voluntary and anonymous.

References

  1. Abele, A. E., & Candova, A. (2007). Prädiktoren des Belastungserlebens im Lehrerberuf. Befunde einer 4-jährigen Längsschnittstudie [Predicting teachers’ stress experience: Findings from a 4-year longitudinal study]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 21(2), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alleva, J., Roelofs, J., Voncken, M., Meevissen, Y., & Alberts, H. (2014). On the relation between mindfulness and depressive symptoms: rumination as a possible mediator. Mindfulness, 5(1), 72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling (pp. 243–277). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). IBM SPSS Amos 20. User’s Guide. Amos Development Corporation. Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  5. Arens, A. K., & Morin, A. J. S. (2016). Relations between teachers’ emotional exhaustion and students’ educational outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(6), 800–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backovic, D. V., Zivojinovic, J. I., Maksimovic, J., & Maksimovic, M. (2012). Gender differences in academic stress and burnout among medical students in final years of education. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(2), 175–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143.Google Scholar
  8. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bamber, M. D., & Schneider, J. K. (2016). Mindfulness-based meditation to decrease stress and anxiety in college students: A narrative synthesis of the research. Educational Research Review, 18, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanz, M. (2014). How do study satisfaction and academic performance interrelate? European Journal of Social Work, 17(2), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briner, R., & Dewberry, C. (2007). Staff wellbeing is key to school success. A research study into the links between staff wellbeing and school performance. London: Worklife Support.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burg, J. M., & Michalak, J. (2011). The healthy quality of mindful breathing: Associations with rumination and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christ, O. (2004). Die Überprüfung der transaktionalen Stresstheorie im Lehramtsreferendariat [The examination of the transactional stress theory for beginning teachers]. http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2005/0197/pdf/doc.pdf. Accessed 3 January 2018.
  15. Coffey, K. A., & Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13(2), 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooke, R., Bewick, B. M., Barkham, M., Bradley, M., & Audin, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring and managing the psychological well-being of first year university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 35(1), 41–57.Google Scholar
  17. Cortina, K. S., & Thames, M. H. (2013). Teacher education in Germany. In M. Kunter, J. Baumert, W. Blum, U. Klusmann, S. Krauss, & M. Neubrand (Eds.), Cognitive activation in the mathematics classroom and professional competence of teachers: Results from the COACTIV project (Mathematics Teacher Education) (pp. 49–62). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Desrosiers, A., Vine, V., Klemanski, D., & Nolen-Hoeksema. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: Common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depression and Anxiety, 30(7), 654–661.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Dicke, T., Parker, P. D., Holzberger, D., Kunina-Habenicht, O., Kunter, M., & Leutner, D. (2015). Beginning teachers’ efficacy and emotional exhaustion: Latent changes, reciprocity, and the influence of professional knowledge. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 62–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixon, S. K., & Robinson Kurpius, S. E. (2008). Depression and college stress among university undergraduates: Do mattering and self-esteem make a difference? Journal of College Student Development, 49(5), 412–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dubert, C. J., Schumacher, A. M., Locker, L., Gutierrez, A. P., & Barnes, V. A. (2016). Mindfulness and emotion regulation among nursing students: Investigating the mediation effect of working memory capacity. Mindfulness, 7(5), 1061–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Enzmann, D., & Kleiber, D. (1989). Helfer-Leiden. Streß und burnout in psychosozialen Berufen [Stress and burnout in psychosocial work]. Heidelberg: Roland Asanger.Google Scholar
  23. Garland, E. L., Fredrickson, B., Kring, A. M., Johnson, D. P., Meyer, P. S., & Penn, D. L. (2010). Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity: Insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits in psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 849–864.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: An upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2(1), 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gerlitz, J.-Y., & Schupp, J. (2005). Zur Erhebung der big-five-basierten Persönlichkeitsmerkmale im SOEP [Investigation of the Big-Five personality characteristics - SOEP]. Berlin: DIW Berlin.Google Scholar
  27. Germer, C. K. (2009). The mindful path to self-compassion: Freeing yourself from destructive thoughts and emotions. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, big-five personality, and affect: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 805–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grob, A., & Horowitz, D. (2014). FEEL-E. Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  30. Guglielmi, R. S., & Tatrow, K. (1998). Occupational stress, burnout, and health in teachers: A methodological and theoretical analysis. Review of Educational Research, 68, 61–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gunthert, K. C., Cohen, L. H., & Armeli, S. (1999). Role of neuroticism in daily stress and coping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1087–1100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Halland, E., de Vibe, M., Solhaug, I., Friborg, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., Tyssen, R., et al. (2015). Mindfulness training improves problem-focused coping in psychology and medical students: Results from a randomized controlled trial. College Student Journal, 49(3), 387–398.Google Scholar
  33. Herbst, U., Müller, M., Voeth, M., Eidhoff, A. T., & Stief, S. (2016). Studierendenstress in Deutschland [Stress among students in Germany]. http://aok-bv.de/imperia/md/aokbv/presse/pressemitteilungen/archiv/2016/08_projektbericht_stressstudie_druck.pdf. Accessed 3 January 2018.
  34. Hill, C. L. M., & Updegraff, J. A. (2012). Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation. Emotion, 12(1), 81–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hinterman, C., Burns, L., Hopwood, D., & Rogers, W. (2012). Mindfulness: Seeking a more perfect approach to coping with life’s challenges. Mindfulness, 3(4), 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Janke, W., Erdmann, G., & Kallus, K. W. (1997). Streßverarbeitungsfragebogen [Stress management questionnaire ]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  37. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.Google Scholar
  38. Kiken, L. G., Garland, E. L., Bluth, K., Palsson, O. S., & Gaylord, S. A. (2015). From a state to a trait: trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 41–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2008). Teachers’ occupational well-being and quality of instruction: The important role of self-regulatory patterns. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 702–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Voss, T., & Baumert, J. (2012). Berufliche Beanspruchung von angehenden Lehrkräften: Die Effekte von Persönlichkeit, praktischer Erfahrung und professioneller Kompetenz. [Emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction of beginning teachers: The role of personality, educational experience and professional competence.]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 26(4), 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klusmann, U., Richter, D., & Lüdtke, O. (2016). Teachers’ emotional exhaustion is negatively related to students’ achievement: Evidence from a large-scale assessment study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(8), 1193–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Künsting, J., Billich-Knapp, M., & Lipowsky, F. (2012). Profile der Anforderungsbewältigung zu Beginn des Lehramtsstudiums. [Profiles of strain coping at the beginning of a teacher education program at the university.]. Journal for Educational Research Online, 4(2), 84–119.Google Scholar
  43. Lewin, K. (1999). Studienabbruch in Deutschland [University drop-out rate in Germany]. In M. Schröder-Gronostay, & H. D. Daniel (Eds.), Studienerfolg und Studienabbruch (pp. 17–49). Neuwied: Luchterhand.Google Scholar
  44. Litmanen, T., Loyens, S. M. M., Sjöblom, K., & Lonka, K. (2014). Medical students’ perceptions of their learning environment, well-being and academic self-concept. Creative Education, 5, 1856–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  46. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. McCrae, R. R. (1990). Controlling neuroticism in the measurement of stress. Stress Medicine, 6, 237–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Medvedev, O. N., Siegert, R. J., Feng, J., Billington, R., Jang, Y., & Krageloh, C. (2016). Measuring trait mindfulness: how to improve the precision of the mindful attention awareness scale using a Rasch model. Mindfulness, 7(2), 384–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Medvedev, O. N., Krägeloh, C. U., Narayanan, A., & Siegert, R. J. (2017). Measuring mindfulness: applying generalizability theory to distinguish betwenn state and trait. Mindfulness, 8(4), 1036–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meulemann, H. (1991). Zufriedenheit und Erfolg in der Bildungslaufbahn. Ein Längsschnitt vom Gymnasium bis zum Studienabschluss. Zeitschrift für Sozialisationsforschung und Erziehungssoziologie, 11, 215–238.Google Scholar
  51. Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Ströhle, G., & Nachtigall, C. (2008). Die deutsche version der mindful attention and awareness scale. Psychometrische Befunde zu einem Achtsamkeitsfragebogen [German version of the MAAS—Psychometric features of a mindfulness questionnaire]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 37, 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nagar, K. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among teachers during times of burnout. Vikalpa, 37(2), 43–60.Google Scholar
  53. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Quinones, C., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Testing A Eustress—Distress Emotion Regulation Model in British and Spanish Front-Line Employees. International Journal of Stress Management. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000021.
  55. Rauin, U. (2007). Im Studium wenig engagiert—im Beruf schnell überfordert. [Low engagement during study—quickly overstrained at work]. Forschung aktuell, 3, 60–64.Google Scholar
  56. Regehr, C., Glancy, D., & Pitts, A. (2013). Interventions to reduce stress in university students: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148, 1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Repo, V. (2011). Affect regulation strategies and their associations with subjective well-being. An international comparative survey. http://tampub.uta.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/82257/gradu04815.pdf;sequence=1. Accessed 3 Jan 2018.
  58. Roloff Henoch, J., Klusmann, U., Lüdtke, O., & Trautwein, U. (2016). Berufliche Selbstregulation im Hochschulstudium: Der Zusammenhang mit Persönlichkeit und Wohlbefinden. [Occupational self-regulation in university education: The relationship with big-five personality dimensions and subjective well-being.]. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 44, 25–39.Google Scholar
  59. Römer, J., Appel, J., Rauin, U., & Drews, F. (2012). Burnout-Risiko von Lehramts- und Jurastudierenden der Anfangssemester [Burnout risk for freshman undergraduates of teaching and law]. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung, 7(3), 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schaarschmidt, U. (2004). Fit für den Lehrerberuf? Psychische Gesundheit von Lehramtsstudierenden und Referendaren [Fit for the teacher job? Mental health of student teachers and beginning teachers]. In U. Beckmann, H. Brandt, & H. Wagner (Eds.), Ein neues Bild vom Lehrerberuf? Pädagogische Professionalität nach Pisa (pp. 100–115). Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
  62. Schaarschmidt, U., & Fischer, A. W. (2008). AVEM – Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster [MECCA - Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Patterns]. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  63. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74.Google Scholar
  64. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shen, B., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J. J., Garn, A. C., Kulik, N., & Fahlman, M. (2015). The relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 519–532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Stallman, H. M. (2010). Psychological distress in university students: A comparison with general population data. Australian Psychologist, 45(4), 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thees, S., Gobel, J., Jose, G., Bohrhardt, R., & Esch, T. (2012). Die Gesundheit von Studierenden im Bologna-Prozess. Untersuchung zu Gesundheitsverhalten, Stress und Wohlbefinden zeigen Handlungsbedarf [Students’ health in the bologna process. Studies on health behavior, stress, and well-being show a need for action.]. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung, 7(3), 196–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tiefenthaler-Gilmer, U. (2002). An awareness-meditation program as clinical intervention method: Treatment effectiveness evaluation study on fibromyalgia patients (Unpublished Dissertation). University of Wien, Wien.Google Scholar
  69. Tsouloupas, C. N., Carson, R. L., Matthews, R., Grawitch, M., & Barber, L. (2010). Exploring the association between teachers’ perceived student misbehavior and emotional exhaustion: The importance of teacher efficacy beliefs and emotion regulation. Educational Psychology, 30(2), 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tyssen, R., Vaglum, P., Grønvold, N. T., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2005). The relative importance of individual and organizational factors for the prevention of job stress during internship: A nationwide and prospective study. Medical Teacher, 27(8), 726–731.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Unger, M., Zaussinger, S., Angel, S., Dünser, L., Grabher, A., Hartl, J., et al. (2010). Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009. Bericht zur sozialen Lage der Studierenden [Student social survey 2009. Report of the social situation of students]. Wien: Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung.Google Scholar
  72. Veenman, S. (1984). Perceived problems of beginning teachers. Review of Educational Research, 54(2), 143–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., Grossman, P., & Schmidt, S. (2004). Empirische Erfassung der Achtsamkeit—Die Konstruktion des Freiburger Fragebogens zur Achtsamkeit (FFA) und weitere Validierungsstudien [Empirical assessment of mindfulness—The construction of the Freiburger Fragebogen zur Achtsamkeit (FFA, Freiburg Questionnaire of Mindfulness) and other validation studies]. In T. Heidenreich, & J. Michalak (Eds.) Achtsamkeit und Akzeptanz in der Psychotherapie (pp. 727–770). Tübingen: DGVT.Google Scholar
  74. Westermann, R., Heise, E., Spies, K., & Trautwein, U. (1996). Identifikation und Erfassung von Komponenten der Studienzufriedenheit. [Identifying and assessing components of student satisfaction]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 43, 1–22.Google Scholar
  75. Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Mindfulness, depression and modes of mind. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 721–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zimmermann, F., Kaiser, J., Bernholt, A., Bauer, J., & Rösler, L. (2016). Veränderungsverläufe in Burnout-Dimensionen: Die Bedeutung personaler und sozialer Faktoren angehender Lehrkräfte im Vorbereitungsdienst. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 63(4), 258–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Psychology, Department of Research Synthesis, Intervention and EvaluationFriedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations