Advertisement

Mindfulness

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 159–167 | Cite as

The Role of Dispositional Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence in Adolescent Males

  • Catherine Teal
  • Luke A. Downey
  • Justine E. Lomas
  • Talitha C. Ford
  • Emily R. Bunnett
  • Con StoughEmail author
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Emotional intelligence (EI) and dispositional mindfulness are two constructs that have been implicated in well-being, particularly in males, and are often part of student well-being programs. This study examined the relationships between EI, dispositional mindfulness, and well-being in adolescent boys. It was hypothesised that EI would mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and well-being. The sample consisted of 294 adolescent male school students aged 13–17 years (M = 14.13, SD = 1.26). Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to dispositional mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents), EI (Adolescent Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Scale), subjective happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire). Two multiple mediation models were developed to assess the extent to which EI mediates the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and (1) subjective happiness and (2) psychological distress. The results indicated that three EI dimensions: Emotional Recognition and Expression (ERE), Emotional Management and Control (EMC), and Understanding the Emotions of Others (UEO), were significantly positively correlated with dispositional mindfulness (p < 0.01). In addition, two EI dimensions (ERE and EMC) partially mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and subjective happiness (ERE: PM = 0.22[0.08], 95% CI = 0.09, 0.39; EMC: PM = 0.28[0.11], 95% CI = 0.10, 0.54), and between dispositional mindfulness and psychological distress (ERE: PM = 0.14[0.06], 95% CI = 0.04, 0.26; EMC: PM = 0.31[0.08], 95% CI = 0.17, 0.48). It was concluded that the development of programs incorporating aspects of dispositional mindfulness and EI could provide tangible benefits to the psychological well-being of adolescent males.

Keywords

Emotional intelligence Dispositional mindfulness Well-being Happiness Psychological distress 

Notes

Author Contributions

CT: designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and drafted the paper. LD: collaborated with the design of the study, analysis of the data, and the drafting and finalising of the paper. TF: conducted the final analyses of the data and collaborated with editing and finalising the paper. JL and CS: collaborated with the design and execution of the study. EB: conducted the initial analysis of the data.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Swinburne University Ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants and from the parents of each child included in the study.

References

  1. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao, X., Xue, S., & Kong, F. (2015). Dispositional mindfulness and perceived stress: the role of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Linley, P. A., & Orzech, K. (2009). When what one has is enough: mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 727–736.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, K. W., West, A. M., Loverich, T. M., & Biegel, G. M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: validation of an Adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1023–1033.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Campos, D., Cebolla, A., Quero, S., Breton-Lopez, J., Botella, C., Soler, J., et al. (2016). Meditation and happiness: mindfulness and self-compassion may mediate the meditation-happiness relationship. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 80–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlson, L., & Brown, K. W. (2005). Validation of the mindful attention awareness scale in a cancer population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(1), 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charbonneau, D., & Nicol, A. A. M. (2002). Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. Psychological Reports, 90(2), 361–370.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2002.90.2.361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ciarrochi, J., Kashdan, T. B., Leeson, P., Heaven, P., & Jordan, C. (2011). On being aware and accepting: a one-year longitudinal study into adolescent well-being. Journal of Adolescence, 34(4), 695–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ciesla, J. A., Reilly, L. C., Dickson, K. S., Emanuel, A. S., & Updegraff, J. A. (2012). Dispositional mindfulness moderates the effects of stress among adolescents: rumination as a mediator. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(6), 760–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dekeyser, M., Raes, F., Leijssen, M., Leysen, S., & Dewulf, D. (2008). Mindfulness skills and interpersonal behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1235–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Downey, L. A., Johnston, P. J., Hansen, K., Schembri, R., Stough, C., Tuckwell, V., & Schweitzer, I. (2008a). The relationship between emotional intelligence and depression in a clinical sample. European Journal of Psychiatry, 22(2), 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Downey, L. A., Mountstephen, J., Lloyd, J., Hansen, K., & Stough, C. (2008b). Emotional intelligence and scholastic achievement in Australian adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 60(1), 10–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530701449505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Downey, L. A., Johnston, P. J., Hansen, K., Birney, J., & Stough, C. (2010). Investigating the mediating effects of emotional intelligence and coping on problem behaviours in adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 62(1), 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2002). Mental health, educational, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(3), 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. French, D. J., & Tait, R. J. (2004). Measurement invariance in the General Health Questionnaire-12 in young Australian adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(1), 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0345-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frewen, P. A., Evans, E. M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D. J. A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(6), 758–774.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9142-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, Big Five personality, and affect: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 805–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldberg, D. P., & Hillier, V. F. (1979). A scaled version of the general health questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 9(1), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greco, L. A., Baer, R. A., & Smith, G. T. (2011). Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: development and validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 606–614.Google Scholar
  22. Gugliandolo, M. C., Costa, S., Cuzzocrea, F., Larcan, R., & Petrides, K. V. (2015). Trait emotional intelligence and behavioral problems among adolescents: a cross-informant design. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 16–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hansen, K., Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2007). Improving occupational stress through emotional intelligence development. Organisations and People, 14(2), 70.Google Scholar
  24. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773–777.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huppert, F. A., & Johnson, D. M. (2010). A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: the importance of practice for an impact on well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 264–274.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439761003794148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. IBM Corp. (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics for Mac (Version 24.0.0.0). Armonk: IBM Corp..Google Scholar
  28. Kong, F., Wang, X., & Zhao, J. J. (2014). Dispositional mindfulness and life satisfaction: the role of core self-evaluations. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 165–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuyken, W., Weare, K., Ukoumunne, O. C., Vicary, R., Motton, N., Burnett, R., et al. (2013). Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(2), 126–131.Google Scholar
  30. Lomas, J., Stough, C., Hansen, K., & Downey, L. A. (2012). Brief report: emotional intelligence, victimisation and bullying in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 207–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Luebbers, S., Downey, L. A., & Stough, C. (2007). The development of an adolescent measure of EI. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 999–1009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137–155.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1006824100041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marks, A. D. G., Sobanski, D. J., & Hine, D. W. (2010). Do dispositional rumination and/or mindfulness moderate the relationship between life hassles and psychological dysfunction in adolescents? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(9), 831–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Emotional intelligence as zeitgeist, as personality, and as a mental ability. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 92–117). New York: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  35. Palmer, B., & Stough, C. (2001). Workplace SUEIT: Swinburne university emotional intelligence test–descriptive report. Swinburne University, AU: Organisational Psychology Research Unit.Google Scholar
  36. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Raes, F., Dewulf, D., Van Heeringen, C., & Williams, J. M. G. (2009). Mindfulness and reduced cognitive reactivity to sad mood: evidence from a correlational study and a non-randomized waiting list controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(7), 623–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Resurreccion, D. M., Salguero, J. M., & Ruiz-Aranda, D. (2014). Emotional intelligence and psychological maladjustment in adolescence: a systematic review. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 461–472.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Riggs, N. R., Black, D. S., & Ritt-Olson, A. (2015). Associations between dispositional mindfulness and executive function in early adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(9), 2745–2751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanchez-Alvarez, N., Extremera, N., & Fernandez-Berrocal, P. (2015). Maintaining life satisfaction in adolescence: affective mediators of the influence of perceived emotional intelligence on overall life satisfaction judgments in a two year longitudinal study. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1892.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01892.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1116–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith, J. M. (2004). Adolescent males’ view on the use of mental health counseling services. Adolescence, 39(153), 77–82.Google Scholar
  44. Wang, Y., & Kong, F. (2014). The role of emotional intelligence in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and mental distress. Social Indicators Research, 116(3), 843–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wen, Z., & Fan, X. (2015). Monotonicity of effect sizes: questioning kappa-squared as mediation effect size measure. Psychological Methods, 20(2), 193–203.  https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Xu, W., Rodriguez, M. A., Zhang, Q., & Liu, X. H. (2015). The mediating effect of self-acceptance in the relationship between mindfulness and peace of mind. Mindfulness, 6(4), 797–802.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0319-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Teal
    • 1
  • Luke A. Downey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Justine E. Lomas
    • 1
  • Talitha C. Ford
    • 1
  • Emily R. Bunnett
    • 1
  • Con Stough
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Emotional Intelligence Research UnitSwinburne UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Breathing and SleepAustin HospitalMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations