Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Social–Emotional Learning Program on Psychosocial Adjustment and Neuropsychological Maturity in Kindergarten Children
The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based social–emotional learning program (MindKinder) on the psychosocial adjustment and neuropsychological development of kindergarten children. The experimental cohort comprised 74 kindergarten children, a cohort obtained through an incidental non-probability sampling method or by accessibility. The children were randomly assigned to control (n = 26; 35.14%) or experimental groups (n = 48; 65.86%). The age of children ranged from 4 to 6 years (M = 5.08, SD = .37). The study followed a quasi-experimental design with repeated pre-test, post-test, and follow-up (after 6 months) measurements with a control group. The MindKinder program was implemented during school time. Results confirmed that the program produced a significant improvement in the psychosocial adjustment and neuropsychological variables in the experimental group. Results showed a significant reduction in the scores of some global maladaptive dimensions among the experimental group: behavioral symptoms index and externalized and academic problems. Likewise, the results show a significant increase in the scores for the experimental group in the dimensions of global development, non-verbal development, visual perception, and attention. Our findings suggest that mindfulness programs may be effective in promoting psychosocial adjustment and improving neuropsychological variables in young children. Implications are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.
KeywordsMeditation Mindfulness Psychosocial adjustment Neuropsychological maturity Kindergarten
We thank Michelle Pascoe, PhD, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.
JC conceived of the study, participated in the data collection, analyzed the data, led preparation, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. AM-G conceived of the study, analyzed the data, and contributed to writing the manuscript. All authors contributed to the interpretation of data, helped to draft and revise the manuscript, and have read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The University of Castilla La-Mancha (Spain) provided approval for the study.
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