, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 1494–1508 | Cite as

Implicit or Explicit Compassion? Effects of Compassion Cultivation Training and Comparison with Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction

  • Gonzalo Brito-Pons
  • Daniel Campos
  • Ausiàs CebollaEmail author


Mindfulness-based interventions generally include compassion implicitly, but it remains to be seen whether implicit compassion training can be effective, or if it needs to be trained explicitly through specific meditations and relational practices. This research study had two specific goals. The first was to expand the literature on the effects of compassion-based interventions (CBIs) by assessing the impact of the Compassion Cultivation Training program (CCT) on anxiety, depression, stress, life satisfaction, happiness, mindfulness, empathy, self-compassion, compassion for others, and identification with all humanity, through a wait-list randomized controlled trial in a community sample (study 1). Secondly, this research addressed the following question: Does a CBI—an explicit compassion training—have a differential impact in terms of empathy, compassion, and identification with all humanity, compared to a mindfulness-based intervention (mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)) in which compassion is taught implicitly? (study 2). Groups were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up, and analyses involved repeated-measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for group contrasts. Compared to the wait-list group, CCT participants showed significant improvements in psychological well-being (decreased depression and stress, increases in life satisfaction, happiness, mindfulness, and self-compassion) and compassion skills. Both MBSR and CCT were effective in generally enhancing psychological well-being and increasing mindfulness and compassion, but CCT had a greater impact on developing compassionate skills, especially empathic concern and identification with all humanity. This research highlights the potential for a complementary (rather than competitive) relationship between mindfulness- and compassion-based interventions.


Compassion Mindfulness Empathy Meditation Training 



Jenny Wade and Ricardo Pulido made contributions to the study design. Ricardo Pulido and Susana Tolosa delivered MBSR programs at Universidad Alberto Hurtado. CIBERobn is an initiative of ISCIII.

Author Contributions

GBP designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. DC and AC: analyzed the data, wrote the results, and collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gonzalo Brito-Pons
    • 1
  • Daniel Campos
    • 2
  • Ausiàs Cebolla
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Nirakara InstituteMadridSpain
  2. 2.Universitat Jaume ICastellóSpain
  3. 3.Universitat de ValènciaValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Ciber Fisipathology of Obesity and NutritionMadridSpain

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