Comparative Effectiveness of Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in a Randomized Controlled Trial
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Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often stressed due to the demands of the job, including the nature and severity of challenging behaviors of the clients, work conditions, degree of management support for the staff, and the demands of implementing some interventions under adverse conditions. Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and PBS alone have been shown to be effective in assisting caregivers to better manage the challenging behaviors of clients with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of the present study was to undertake a head-to-head assessment of the effectiveness of MBPBS and PBS alone in a 40-week randomized controlled trial. Of the 123 caregivers who met inclusion criteria, 60 were randomly assigned to MBPBS and 63 to PBS alone, with 59 completing the trial in the MBPBS condition and 57 in the PBS alone condition. Results showed both interventions to be effective, but the caregiver, client, and agency outcomes for MBPBS were uniformly superior to those of PBS alone condition. In addition, the MBPBS training was substantially more cost-effective than the PBS alone training. The present results add to the evidence base for the effectiveness of MBPBS and, if independently replicated, could provide an integrative health care approach in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities.
KeywordsMindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support MBPBS PBS Stress Compassion fatigue Burnout Secondary traumatic stress Perceived stress Cost-effectiveness
A portion of the data included in this paper were first presented at the Second International Conference on Mindfulness (ICM-2), Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, May 11–15, 2016, and with additional data at the IASSIDD 4th Asia-Pacific Regional Congress: Inclusiveness and Sustainable Development, November 13–17, 2017, Bangkok, Thailand.
Preparation of this article was supported by a National 461 Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (NRF-2010-361- 462 A00008) funded by the Korean Government (MEST).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
NNS is the developer of the MBPBS program. The authors declare no conflict of interest and they do not work for, consult to, and own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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