, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 807–818 | Cite as

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Body Mindfulness Questionnaire

  • Jan M. Burg
  • Thomas Probst
  • Thomas Heidenreich
  • Johannes Michalak


The body is central in many mindfulness-based interventions. Body mindfulness has been defined as observing body experiences and as a consequence appreciating body experiences. Since only a few psychometrically sound questionnaires are available to measure the observing aspect of body mindfulness and no scale specifically addresses the appreciating aspect of body mindfulness, the Body Mindfulness Questionnaire (BMQ) was created. This study presents the development and the psychometric evaluation of the BMQ. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested two scales: “Experiencing Body Awareness” and “Appreciating Body Awareness”. Evidence for the reliability (internal consistency and retest reliability), validity (factorial validity and construct validity), and sensitivity to change is reported. The findings suggest that the BMQ is a valid and reliable instrument that allows assessment of essential facets of body mindfulness.


Mindfulness Body Assessment Embodiment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare no conflicts of interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Research Ethics Committee of the German Psychological Association approved the trial on MBCT and CBASP for chronically depressed patients (JM072009).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


The trial on MBCT and CBASP for chronic depression was funded by the German Science Foundation (Mi 700/4-1).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyRuhr University BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and PsychotherapyWitten/Herdecke UniversityWittenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Psychology for Social Work, Health and NursingEsslingen University of Applied SciencesEsslingen am NeckarGermany

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