, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 232–246 | Cite as

Mindfulness In Parenting Questionnaire (MIPQ): Development and Validation of a Measure of Mindful Parenting

  • Stacey McCaffrey
  • David ReitmanEmail author
  • Ryan Black


The aim of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a measure of mindful parenting (the Mindfulness In Parenting Questionnaire (MIPQ)) for use with parents of children and adolescents, ranging in age from 2- to 16-years-old. Content experts assisted in item development, and cognitive interviewing was used to revise the measure. Parents (N = 203) completed the preliminary MIPQ along with measures of parenting style, parenting practices, and mindfulness. The contemporary psychometrics approach known as the item response theory (IRT) was used to evaluate the MIPQ. Results yielded two dimensions, each of which was measured optimally using the partial credit model. The two dimensions, mindful discipline and being in the moment with the child, explained 42.3 and 43.4 % of the variance, respectively. Correlations between the MIPQ and parenting style, parenting practices, practice of mindfulness, and participant demographics provided support for construct validity. The MIPQ exhibited a positive and weak correlation with the MAAS, indicating that interpersonal and intrapersonal mindfulness are related yet separate and distinct constructs. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.


Mindful parenting Measurement Psychometrics Item response theory Partial credit model Modern test theory 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

None of the study authors declared any conflicts of interest, nor was any outside funding used to produce this research. All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of Nova Southeastern University and approved by its IRB in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

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