Mindfulness

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 1250–1262

Mindfulness at Work: Positive Affect, Hope, and Optimism Mediate the Relationship Between Dispositional Mindfulness, Work Engagement, and Well-Being

ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Mindfulness has been described as a state of awareness characterized by refined attentional skills and a non-evaluative attitude toward internal and external events. Recently, it has been suggested that higher levels of mindfulness may be beneficial in the workplace and first programs aiming to increase mindful awareness in occupational settings have been introduced. The current study underpins these developments with empirical evidence regarding the involved psychological processes, by investigating the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, work engagement, and well-being in 299 adults in full-time employment. As hypothesized, the results confirm that self-reported mindfulness predicts work engagement and general well-being. Furthermore, these relationships are mediated by positive job-related affect and psychological capital (hope, optimism, resiliency, and self-efficacy). Investigating mindfulness and psychological capital as multi-faceted concepts by means of structural equation modeling yielded a more precise picture. The ability to step back from automatic, habitual reactions to distress turned out to be the mindfulness facet most central for predicting work engagement and well-being. Furthermore, mindfulness exerts its positive effect on work engagement by increasing positive affect, hope, and optimism, which on their own and in combination enhance work engagement (full mediation). Well-being, on the other hand, is directly influenced by mindfulness, which exerts additional indirect influence via positive affect, hope, and optimism (partial mediation). Although exploratory in nature, the results identify non-reactivity and non-judging as important mindfulness skills in the workplace.

Keywords

Mindfulness Psychological capital Work engagement Well-being Structural equation modeling Broaden-and-Build theory 

References

  1. Allen, T. D., & Kiburz, K. M. (2012). Trait mindfulness and work–family balance among working parents: the mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 372–379. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2011.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). IBM SPSS Amos 21 user’s guide. Crawfordville: Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Attridge, M. (2009). Measuring and managing employee work engagement: a review of the research and business literature. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24(4), 383–398. doi:10.1080/15555240903188398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), 48–70. doi:10.1177/0021886307311470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127–152. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. doi: 10.1177/1073191105283504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342. doi:10.1177/1073191107313003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L., & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 4–28. doi:10.1080/1359432x.2010.485352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balducci, C., Cecchin, M., Fraccaroli, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Exploring the relationship between workaholism and workplace aggressive behaviour: the role of job-related emotion. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(5), 629–634. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). Measuring mindfulness: first steps towards the development of a comprehensive mindfulness scale. Mindfulness, 4(1), 18–32. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0102-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M. A., Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–242.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15(2), 204–223. doi:10.1177/1073191107311467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. S. (2005). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 231–243). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cavanagh, M. J., & Spence, G. B. (2012). Mindfulness in coaching: philosophy, psychology or just a useful skill? In J. Passmore, D. B. Peterson, & T. Freire (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the psychology of coaching and mentoring (pp. 112–134). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: an integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(6), 560–572. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, D. J. Q., & Lim, V. K. G. (2012). Strength in adversity: the influence of psychological capital on job search. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(6), 811–839. doi:10.1002/job.1814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiesa, A., Serretti, A., & Jakobsen, J. C. (2013). Mindfulness: top-down or bottom-up emotion regulation strategy? Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 82–96. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Claes, R., & Loo, K. (2011). Relationships of proactive behaviour with job-related affective well-being and anticipated retirement age: an exploration among older employees in Belgium. European Journal of Ageing, 8(4), 233–241. doi:10.1007/s10433-011-0203-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cropanzano, R., & Wright, T. A. (1999). A 5-year study of change in the relationship between well-being and job performance. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 51(4), 252–265. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.51.4.252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Curtiss, J., & Klemanski, D. H. (2014). Factor analysis of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in a heterogeneous clinical sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s10862-014-9429-y.Google Scholar
  24. Dane, E. (2011). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management, 37(4), 997–1018. doi:10.1177/0149206310367948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations, 67(1), 105–128. doi:10.1177/0018726713487753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, K. M., Lau, M. A., & Cairns, D. R. (2009). Development and preliminary validation of a trait version of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 185–197. doi:10.1891/0889-8391.23.3.185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawkins, S., Martin, A., Scott, J., & Sanderson, K. (2013). Building on the positives: a psychometric review and critical analysis of the construct of Psychological Capital. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(3), 348–370. doi:10.1111/joop.12007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans, M. G. (1985). A Monte Carlo study of the effects of correlated method variance in moderated multiple regression analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36(3), 305–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fairlie, P. (2011). Meaningful work, employee engagement, and other key employee outcomes: implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 508–525. doi:10.1177/1523422311431679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J.-P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177–190. doi:10.1007/s10862-006-9035-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). Seeing the glass half full: a review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques Psychologiques, 18(2), 107–120. doi:10.1016/j.prps.2012.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 359, 1367–1378. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: a review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glomb, T. M., Duffy, M. K., Bono, J. Y., & Yang, T. (2011). Mindfulness at work. In: A. Joshi, H. Liao, & J. J. Martocchio (Eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 115–157, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 30): Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., Johnson, P. D., Frazier, M. L., & Snow, D. B. (2009). In the eyes of the beholder: transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 353–367. doi:10.1177/1548051809332021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York (NY): Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Wheeler, A. R. (2008). The relative roles of engagement and embeddedness in predicting job performance and intention to leave. Work & Stress, 22(3), 242–256. doi:10.1080/02678370802383962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Halbesleben, J. R. B., Harvey, J., & Bolino, M. C. (2009). Too engaged? A conservation of resources view of the relationship between work engagement and work interference with family. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1452–1465. doi:10.1037/a0017595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268–279. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.2.268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill, E. J., Yang, C., Hawkins, A. J., & Ferris, M. (2004). A cross-cultural test of the work-family interface in 48 countries. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5), 1300–1316. doi:10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00094.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoyle, R. H. (2011). Structural equation modeling for social and personality psychology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: the role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 310–325. doi:10.1037/a0031313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Irving, J. A., Dobkin, P. L., & Park, J. (2009). Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: a review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(2), 61–66. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jensen, S. M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Relationship between entrepreneurs’ psychological capital and their authentic leadership. Journal of Managerial Issues, XVIII(2), 254–273.Google Scholar
  45. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156.Google Scholar
  46. Keng, S. L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kiken, L. G., & Shook, N. J. (2011). Looking up: mindfulness increases positive judgments and reduces negativity bias. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(4), 425–431. doi:10.1177/1948550610396585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klatt, M. D., Buckworth, J., & Malarkey, W. B. (2009). Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working adults. Health Education & Behavior, 36(3), 601–614. doi:10.1177/1090198108317627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lai, X., Li, F., & Leung, K. (2013). A Monte Carlo study of the effects of common method variance on significance testing and parameter bias in hierarchical linear modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 16(2), 243–269. doi:10.1177/1094428112469667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Dimitrova, N. G., & Sels, L. (2013). Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and work engagement: a growth modeling approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(3), 238–247. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2013.01.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levy, D. M., Wobbrock, J. O., Kaszniak, A. W., & Ostergren, M. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation training on multitasking in a high-stress information environment. In: Graphics Interface Conference, Toronto, 28–30 May 2012 2012 (pp. 45–52, Proceedings of Graphics Interface). Toronto: Canadian Information Processing Society.Google Scholar
  52. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151–173. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007a). Positive psychological capital: measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541–572. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007b). Psychological capital: developing the human competitive edge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Malinowski, P. (2008). Mindfulness as psychological dimension: concepts and applications. Irish Journal of Psychology, 29(1), 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malinowski, P. (2012). Flourishing through meditation and mindfulness. In S. David, I. Boniwell, & A. Conley Ayers (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Happiness (pp. 384–396). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Malinowski, P. (2013). Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 8. doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00008.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: the key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89–96.Google Scholar
  60. Meiklejohn, J., Phillips, C., Freedman, M. L., Griffin, M. L., Biegel, G., Roach, A., et al. (2012). Integrating mindfulness training into K-12 education: fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness, 3(4), 291–307. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0094-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(1), 176–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Papies, E. K., Barsalou, L. W., & Custers, R. (2012). Mindful attention prevents mindless impulses. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(3), 291–299. doi:10.1177/1948550611419031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Quoidbach, J., Berry, E. V., Hansenne, M., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 368–373. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ram, P., & Prabhakar, G. V. (2011). The role of employee engagement in work-related outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(3), 47–61.Google Scholar
  66. Reb, J., Narayanan, J., & Chaturvedi, S. (2014). Leading mindfully: two studies on the influence of supervisor trait mindfulness on employee well-being and performance. Mindfulness, 5, 36-45. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0144-z.
  67. Rego, A., Marques, C., Leal, S., Sousa, F., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2010). Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(9), 1531–1552. doi:10.1080/09585192.2010.488459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Robertson, I. T., & Cooper, C. L. (2010). Full engagement: the integration of employee engagement and psychological well-being. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(4), 324–336. doi:10.1108/01437731011043348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roche, M., Haar, J. M., & Luthans, F. (2014). The role of mindfulness and psychological capital on the well-being of leaders. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0037183.Google Scholar
  70. Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., & Hojat, M. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction lowers psychological distress in medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15(2), 88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619. doi:10.1108/02683940610690169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). “Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it!” On gain cycles and spirals of efficacy beliefs, affect, and engagement. Applied Psychology, 60(2), 255–285. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2010.00435.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sauer, S., & Kohls, N. (2011). Mindfulness in leadership: does being mindful enhance leaders’ business success? In S. Han & E. Pöppel (Eds.), Culture and neural frames of cognition and communication (pp. 287–307). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: a cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716. doi:10.1177/0013164405282471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models. Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures Methods of Psychological Research, 8(2), 23–74.Google Scholar
  78. Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre- and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1(3), 137–151. doi:10.1007/s12671-010-0011-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sears, S., & Kraus, S. (2009). I think therefore I am: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 561–573. doi:10.1002/jclp.20543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. doi:10.1002/jclp.20237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 105–115. doi:10.1037/1931-3918.1.2.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., Thoresen, C., & Plante, T. G. (2011). The moderation of mindfulness-based stress reduction effects by trait mindfulness: results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 267–277. doi:10.1002/jclp.20761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shimazu, A., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees. Industrial Health, 47, 495–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. (2010). Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods, 13(3), 456–476. doi:10.1177/1094428109351241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Simpson, M. R. (2009). Engagement at work: a review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(7), 1012–1024. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.05.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Slagter, H. A., Davidson, R. J., & Lutz, A. (2011). Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 17. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Snyder, C. R. (2002). TARGET ARTICLE: Hope theory: rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249–275. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1304_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: a new look at the interface between nonwork and work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 518–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sonnentag, S., Mojza, E. J., Binnewies, C., & Scholl, A. (2008). Being engaged at work and detached at home: a week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect. Work & Stress, 22(3), 257–276. doi:10.1080/02678370802379440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., et al. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5, 63. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-5-63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Teper, R., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 85–92. doi:10.1093/scan/nss045.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Teper, R., Segal, Z. V., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: how mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. doi:10.1177/0963721413495869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. van Berkel, J., Proper, K. I., Boot, C. R. L., Bongers, P. M., & van der Beek, A. J. (2011). Mindful “Vitality in Practice”: an intervention to improve the work engagement and energy balance among workers; the development and design of the randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 736–748.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. van Berkel, J., Boot, C. R. L., Proper, K. I., Bongers, P. M., & van der Beek, A. J. (2013). Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(1), 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Katwyk, P. T., Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Using the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS) to investigate affective responses to work stressors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(2), 219–230. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.5.2.219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Verplanken, B., & Fisher, N. (2014). Habitual worrying and benefits of mindfulness. Mindfulness, 5(5), 566–573. doi:10.1007/s12671-013-0211-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weinstein, N., Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). A multi-method examination of the effects of mindfulness on stress attribution, coping, and emotional well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 374–385. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Williams, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Karl, A., & Kuyken, W. (2014). Examining the factor structures of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Self-Compassion Scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 407–418. doi:10.1037/a0035566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolever, R. Q., Bobinet, K. J., McCabe, K., Mackenzie, E. R., Fekete, E., Kusnick, C. A., et al. (2012). Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(2), 246–258. doi:10.1037/a0027278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2000). Psychological well-being and job satisfaction as predictors of job performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 84–94. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., & Meyer, D. G. (2004). State and trait correlates of job performance: a tale of two perspectives. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(3), 365–383. doi:10.1023/b:jobu.0000016708.22925.72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(2), 121–141. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: a diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183–200. doi:10.1348/096317908x285633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Centre for Brain and BehaviourLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations