Mindfulness

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 1161–1180 | Cite as

Buddhist-Derived Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation for the Treatment of Psychopathology: a Systematic Review

  • Edo Shonin
  • William Van Gordon
  • Angelo Compare
  • Masood Zangeneh
  • Mark D. Griffiths
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Although clinical interest has predominantly focused on mindfulness meditation, interest into the clinical utility of Buddhist-derived loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM) is also growing. This paper follows the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and provides an evaluative systematic review of LKM and CM intervention studies. Five electronic academic databases were systematically searched to identify all intervention studies assessing changes in the symptom severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text revision fourth edition) Axis I disorders in clinical samples and/or known concomitants thereof in subclinical/healthy samples. The comprehensive database search yielded 342 papers and 20 studies (comprising a total of 1,312 participants) were eligible for inclusion. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was then used to assess study quality. Participants demonstrated significant improvements across five psychopathology-relevant outcome domains: (i) positive and negative affect, (ii) psychological distress, (iii) positive thinking, (iv) interpersonal relations, and (v) empathic accuracy. It is concluded that LKM and CM interventions may have utility for treating a variety of psychopathologies. However, to overcome obstacles to clinical integration, a lessons-learned approach is recommended whereby issues encountered during the (ongoing) operationalization of mindfulness interventions are duly considered. In particular, there is a need to establish accurate working definitions for LKM and CM.

Keywords

Loving-kindness meditation Compassion meditation Mindfulness Psychopathology Buddhist-derived interventions 

References

  1. Albertson, E. R., Neff, K. D., & Dill-Shackleford, K. E. (2014). Self-compassion and body dissatisfaction in women: a randomized controlled trial of a brief meditation intervention. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0277-3.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2010). American psychiatric association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (3rd ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnhofer, T., Chittka, T., Nightingale, H., Visser, C., & Crane, C. (2010). State effects of two forms of meditation on prefrontal EEG asymmetry in previously depressed individuals. Mindfulness, 1, 21–27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test revised version: a study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchard, J. J., Kring, A. M., Horan, W. P., & Gur, R. (2011). Toward the next generation of negative symptom assessments: the collaboration to advance negative symptom assessment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 291–299.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodhi, B. (1994). The noble eightfold path: way to the end of suffering. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Byock, I., & Merriman, M. (1998). Measuring quality of life for patients with terminal illness: the Missoula-VITAS quality of life index. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12, 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carson, J. W., Keefe, F. J., Lynch, T. R., Carson, K. M., Goli, V., Fras, A. M., & Thorp, S. R. (2005). Loving-kindness meditation for chronic low back pain: results from a pilot trial. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 23, 287–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chah, A. (2011). The collected teachings of Ajahn Chah. Northumberland: Aruna Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Chiesa, A. (2013). The difficulty of defining mindfulness: current thought and critical issues. Mindfulness, 4, 3255–3268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Condon, P., Desbordes, G., Miller, W., & DeSteno, D. (2013). Meditation increases compassionate responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24, 2125–2127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crane, C., Jandric, D., Barnhofer, T., & Williams, J. M. (2010). Dispositional mindfulness, meditation, and conditional goal setting. Mindfulness, 1, 204–214.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalai Lama (2001). Stages of meditation: training the mind for wisdom. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  19. Davey, G. C. (2008). Psychopathology: research, assessment and treatment in clinical psychology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, M. H. (1983). The effects of dispositional empathy on emotional reactions and helping: a multidimentional approach. Journal of Personality, 51, 167–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Derntl, B., Finkelmeyer, A., Eickhoff, S., Kellermann, T., Falkenberg, D. I., Schneider, F., & Habel, U. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 67–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The brief symptom inventory: an introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13, 595–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 292.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engström, M., & Söderfeldt, B. (2010). Brain activation during compassion meditation: a case study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16, 597–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feldman, G., Greeson, J., & Senville, J. (2010). Differential effects of mindful breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and loving-kindness meditation on decentering and negative reactions to repetitive thoughts. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 1002–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Follette, V., Palm, K. M., & Pearson, A. N. (2006). Mindfulness and trauma: implications for treatment. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 24, 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365–376.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1045–1061.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M., Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., Ma, H., & Williams, J. M. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38, 234–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Galante, J., Galante, I., Bekkers, M., & Gallacher, J. (2014). Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0037249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gampopa, S. (1998). In A. K. Trinlay Chodron, K. Konchong Gyaltsen, & Trans (Eds.), The jewel ornament of liberation: the wish-fulfilling gem of the noble teachings. New York: Snow Lion Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Gard, D. E., Gard, M. G., Kring, A. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Anticipatory and consummatory components of the experience of pleasure: a scale development study. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1086–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 15, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 353–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilbert, P., Clarke, M., Hempel, S., Miles, J. N. V., & Irons, C. (2004). Criticizing and reassuring oneself: an exploration of forms, styles and reasons in female students. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 31–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Matos, M., & Rivis, A. (2010). Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 84, 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 248–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Health and Safety Executive. n.d. HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool. London: Author.Google Scholar
  40. Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 227–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hofmann, S. G., Grossman, P., & Hinton, D. E. (2011). Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: potential for psychological interventions. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1126–1132.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Humphrey, C. W. (1999). A stress management intervention with forgiveness as the goal. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 60(4), 1855.Google Scholar
  43. Hunsinger, M., Linvingston, D., & Isbell, L. M. (2013). The impact of loving-kindness meditation on affective learning and cognitive control. Mindfulness, 4(3), 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E. M., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion, 8, 720–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jazaieri, H., Jinpa, G. T., McGonigal, K., Rosenberg, E. L., Finkelstein, J., Simon-Thomas, E., Cullen, M., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. R. (2013). Enhancing compassion: a randomized controlled trial of a compassion cultivation training program. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1113–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jazaieri, H., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. R. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, D. P., Penn, D. L., Fredrickson, B. L., Meyer, P. S., Kring, A. M., & Brantley, M. (2009). Loving-kindness to enhance recovery from negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 499–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, D. P., Penn, D. L., Fredrickson, B. L., Kring, A. M., Meyer, P. S., Catalino, L. I., & Brantley, M. (2011). A pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 129, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keysers, C. (2011). The empathic brain: how the discovery of mirror neurons changes our understanding of human nature. Chicago: Social Brain Press.Google Scholar
  50. Khyentse, D. (2007). The heart of compassion: the thirty-seven verses on the practice of a bodhisattva. Boston: Shambhala Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The ‘trier social stress Test’—a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleinman, B. M. (2011). Differential effects of meditation on relationship quality. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 72(1), 539.Google Scholar
  53. Koopmann-Holm, B., Sze, J., Ochs, C., & Tsai, J. L. (2013). Buddhist inspired meditation increases the value of calm. Emotion, 13, 497–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Law, R. W. (2012). An analogue study of loving-kindness meditation as a buffer against social stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 72(7), 4365.Google Scholar
  55. Lee, T. M., Leung, M.-K., Hou, W.-K., Tang, J. C., Yin, J., So, K.-F., Lee, C. F., & Chan, C. C. (2012). Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e40054.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leiberg, S., Klimecki, O., & Singer, T. (2011). Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behavior in a newly developed prosocial game. PLoS ONE, 6(3), e17798.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. California: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  58. Logie, K., & Frewen, P. (2014). Self/other referential processing following mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0317-z.Google Scholar
  59. Lomas, T., Cartwright, T., Edginton, T., & Ridge, D. (2014). A qualitative summary of experiential challenges associated with meditation practice. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0329-8.Google Scholar
  60. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation.Google Scholar
  61. Lutz, A., Brefczynski-Lewis, J., Johnstone, T., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise. PLoS ONE, 3(3), e1897.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Malouff, J. M., & Schutte, N. S. (1986). Development and validation of a measure of irrational belief. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 860–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mascaro, J. S., Rilling, J. K., Negi, L. T., & Raison, C. L. (2013a). Compassion meditation enhances empathic accuracy and related neural activity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 48–55.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mascaro, J. S., Rilling, J. K., Negi, L. T., & Raison, C. L. (2013b). Pre-existing brain function predicts subsequent practice of mindfulness and compassion meditation. NeuroImage, 69, 35–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. May, C., Burgard, M., Mena, M., Abassi, I., Bernhardt, N., Clemens, S., & Williamson, R. (2011). Short-term training in loving-kindness meditation produces a state, but not a trait, alteration of attention. Mindfulness, 2, 143–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. May, C. J., Weyker, J. R., Spengel, S. K., Finkler, L. J., & Hendrix, S. E. (2012). Tracking longitudinal changes in affect and mindfulness caused by concentration and loving-kindness meditation with hierarchical linear modeling. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0172-8.Google Scholar
  67. Mayhew, S. L., & Gilbert, P. (2008). Compassionate mind training with people who hear malevolent voices: a case series report. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 15, 113–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Melzack, R. (1975). The McGill pain questionnaire: major properties and scoring methods. Pain, 1, 277–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Melzack, R. (1991). From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, 6(Suppl), S121–S126.Google Scholar
  70. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(6), e1000097.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nanamoli. (1979). The path of purification: visuddhi magga. Kandy (Sri Lanka): Buddhist Publication Society.Google Scholar
  73. National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2008). Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (QATQS). Hamilton, ON: McMaster University. Accessed 10th January 2013 from: http://www.nccmt.ca/registry/view/eng/14.html.
  74. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). (2009). Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care. London: Author.Google Scholar
  75. Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 28–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., & Hedberg, J. (2010). Does passage meditation foster compassionate love among health professionals? A randomized trial. l, 13, 129–154.Google Scholar
  78. Pace, W. W., Negi, L. T., Adame, D. D., Cole, S. P., Sivilli, T. I., Brown, T. D., Issa, M. J., & Raison, C. L. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 87–98.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pace, T. W., Negi, L. T., Sivilli, T. I., Issa, M. J., Cole, S. P., Adame, D. D., & Raison, C. L. (2010). Innate immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress do not predict subsequent compassion meditation practice time. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 310–315.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pace, T., Negi, L., Dodson-Lavelle, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Reddy, S., Cole, S., & Raison, C. L. (2013). Engagement with cognitively-based compassion training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 294–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Proverbio, A. M., Adorni, R., Zani, A., & Trestianu, L. (2009). Sex differences in the brain response to affective scenes with or without humans. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2374–2388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES–D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reddy, S. D., Negi, L. T., Dodson-Lavelle, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Pace, T. W., Cole, S. P., Raison, C. L., & Craighead, L. W. (2012). Cognitive-based compassion training: a promising prevention strategy for at-risk adolescent. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9571-7.Google Scholar
  84. Russel, S. S., Spitzmuller, C., Lin, L. F., Stanton, J. M., Smith, P. C., & Ironson, G. H. (2004). Shorter can also be better: the abridged Job in general scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 878–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it?: explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sears, S., & Kraus, S. (2009). I think therefore I Om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 561–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shahar, B., Szsepsenwol, O., Zilcha-Mano, S., Haim, N., Zamir, O., Levi-Yeshuvi, S., & Levit-Binnun, N. (2014). A wait-list randomized controlled trial of loving-kindness meditation programme for self-criticism. Clinical Psychology and Psychothery. doi:10.1002/cpp.1893.
  88. Shamay-Tsoory, S. G. (2011). The neural bases for empathy. The Neuroscientist, 17, 18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shantideva. (1997). A guide to the Bodhisattva way of life. New York: Snow Lion Publications.Google Scholar
  90. Shapira, L. B., & Mongraina, M. (2010). The benefits of self-compassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shapiro, D. H. (1992). Adverse effects of meditation: a preliminary investigation of long-term meditators. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 32, 62–67.Google Scholar
  92. Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2014). The lineage of mindfulness. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0327-x.Google Scholar
  93. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Slade, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013a). Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013b). Meditation awareness training (MAT) for improved psychological wellbeing: a qualitative examination of participant experiences. Journal of Religion and Health, 53, 849–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013c). Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: toward effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Dunn, T. J., Singh, N. N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Meditation awareness training for work-related wellbeing and job performance: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 806–823.Google Scholar
  98. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Griffiths, M. D. (2014c). Loving-kindness and compassion meditation in psychotherapy. Thresholds: Quarterly Journal of the Association for Pastoral and Spiritual Care and Counselling, Spring Issue, 9–12.Google Scholar
  99. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014d). Do mindfulness-based therapies have a role in the treatment of psychosis? Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 124–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sogyal Rinpoche (1998). The Tibetan book of living and dying. London: Rider.Google Scholar
  102. Templeton, J. L. (2007). Expanding circle morality: believing that all life matters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 68(2), 1342.Google Scholar
  103. Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2008). Self-compassion and PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 556–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trungpa, C. (2002). Cutting through spiritual materialism. Boston: Shambala.Google Scholar
  105. Tsai, J. L., & Knutson, B. (2006). The Affect Valuation Index: reliability and validity. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  106. Tsai, J. L., Miao, F. F., & Seppala, E. (2007). Good feelings in Christianity and Buddhism: religious differences in ideal affect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 409–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tsong-Kha-pa. (2004). The great treatise on the stages of the path to enlightenment (Vol. 1). New York: Snow Lion Publications.Google Scholar
  108. Urgyen Rinpoche (1995). Rainbow painting. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publications.Google Scholar
  109. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for psychological wellbeing in a sub-clinical sample of university students: a controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, 5, 381–391.Google Scholar
  110. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). Work-related mental health and job performance: can mindfulness help? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 129–137.Google Scholar
  111. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D. & Singh, N. N. (2014b). Mindfulness and the four noble truths. In E. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh, (Eds). Buddhist foundations of mindfulness. New York: Springer (in press).Google Scholar
  112. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmuller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1543–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wallmark, E., Safarzadeh, K., Daukantaite, D., & Maddux, R. E. (2013). Promoting altruism through meditation: an 8-week randomized controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, 4, 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scale. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weibel, D. T. (2008). A loving-kindness intervention: boosting compassion for self and others. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 68(12), 8418.Google Scholar
  116. Weissman, A. N., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: a preliminary investigation. Toronto: Paper presented at the 86th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  117. Welbourne, T. M., Johnson, D. E., & Erez, A. (1998). The role-based performance scale: validity analysis of a theory-based measure. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 540–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Weng, H. Y., Fox, A. S., Shackman, A. J., Stodola, D. E., Caldwell, J. Z. K., Olson, M. C., Rogers, G. M., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering. Psychological Science, 24, 1171–1180.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Williams, A.-L., Selwyn, P. A., Liberti, L., Molde, S., Njike, V. Y., McCorkle, R., Zelterman, D., & Katz, D. L. (2005). A randomized controlled trial of meditation and massage effects on quality of life in people with late stage disease: a pilot study. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 8, 939–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Williams, M. J., McManus, F., Muse, K., & Williams, J. M. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis): an interpretative phenomenological analysis of patients’ experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 379–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edo Shonin
    • 1
  • William Van Gordon
    • 1
  • Angelo Compare
    • 2
  • Masood Zangeneh
    • 3
  • Mark D. Griffiths
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DivisionNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamshireUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Human and Social SciencesUniversity of BergamoBergamoItaly
  3. 3.Factor-Inwentash, Faculty of Social WorkUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations