, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 501–522 | Cite as

The Impact of Group-Based Mindfulness Training on Self-Reported Mindfulness: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Endre Visted
  • Jon Vøllestad
  • Morten Birkeland Nielsen
  • Geir Høstmark Nielsen


Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) show promising results in both clinical and non-clinical settings. A number of studies indicate that self-reported mindfulness is associated with adaptive psychological functioning and decreased symptom distress. However, there have been no systematic reviews of research on self-reported mindfulness as an outcome of MBIs for clinical and non-clinical samples. It is also unclear to what extent MBIs actually lead to increased and stable self-reported mindfulness. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies measuring self-reported mindfulness before and after an MBI. Meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate self-reported mindfulness as an outcome of MBIs. The results show that several questionnaires have been designed to measure mindfulness, and these have been applied to a variety of samples. Although methodological issues preclude definite conclusions, the meta-analysis indicates that MBIs increase self-reported mindfulness. Effect sizes indicate that increases are in the medium range (Hedges’ g = 0.53). However, over half of the studies found no significant effects of MBIs on self-reported mindfulness from pre- to post-intervention. Also, studies of MBIs against active control conditions show no significant advantage for MBIs in increasing self-reported mindfulness. This raises serious questions concerning the validity of the mindfulness questionnaires currently in use. The addition of a full or half day of intensive mindfulness training (retreats) as part of the intervention moderate the effect sizes in positive direction. Implications for future research include the need for analysis of statistical mediation as well as further validation of questionnaires. Comparisons of MBIs to established evidence-based interventions as active control conditions are also called for.


Mindfulness Mindfulness-based Assessment Questionnaire Group Intervention 


*Study was included in the meta-analysis

  1. *Agee, J. D., Danoff-Burg, S., & Grant, C. A. (2009). Comparing brief stress management courses in a community sample: mindfulness skills and progressive muscle relaxation. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 5(2), 104–109. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2008.12.004.Google Scholar
  2. *Altmaier, E., & Maloney, R. (2007). An initial evaluation of a mindful parenting program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(12), 1231–1238. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. *Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 14(6), 449–463. doi: 10.1002/cpp.544.Google Scholar
  4. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Laboratory stressors in clinically anxious and non-anxious individuals: the moderating role of mindfulness. Behaviour research and therapy, 48(6), 495–505. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.02.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bpg015.Google Scholar
  6. Baer, R. A. (2007). Mindfulness, assessment, and transdiagnostic processes. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 238–242. doi: 10.1080/10478400701598306.Google Scholar
  7. Baer, R. A. (2011). Measuring mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 241–261. doi: 10.1080/14639947.2011.564842.Google Scholar
  8. Baer, R. A., & Krietemeyer, J. (2006). Overview of mindfulness- and acceptance-based treatment approaches. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  9. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. doi: 10.1177/1073191104268029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. doi: 10.1177/1073191105283504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baer, R. A., Carmody, J., & Hunsinger, M. (2012). Weekly change in mindfulness and perceived stress in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(7), 755–765. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. *Baum, C., Kuyken, W., Bohus, M., Heidenreich, T., Michalak, J., & Steil, R. (2010). The psychometric properties of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills in clinical populations. Assessment, 17(2), 220–229. doi: 10.1177/1073191109356525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bieling, P. J., Hawley, L. L., Bloch, R. T., Corcoran, K. M., Levitan, R. D., Young, L. T., et al. (2012). Treatment-specific changes in decentering following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus antidepressant medication or placebo for prevention of depressive relapse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(3), 365–372. doi: 10.1037/a0027483.Google Scholar
  14. *Birnie, K., Garland, S. N., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Psycho Oncology, 19(9), 1004–1009. doi: 10.1002/pon.1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bph077.Google Scholar
  16. *Bögels, S., Hoogstad, B., van Dun, L., de Schutter, S., & Restifo, K. (2008). Mindfulness training for adolescents with externalizing disorders and their parents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(02), 193–209. doi: 10.1017/S1352465808004190.Google Scholar
  17. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2011). Comprehensive meta analysis (Version 2.2.064). Englewood: Biostat.Google Scholar
  19. *Bowen, S., Chawla, N., Collins, S. E., Witkiewitz, K., Hsu, S., Grow, J., et al. (2009). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot efficacy trial. Substance Abuse, 30(4), 295–305. doi: 10.1080/08897070903250084.Google Scholar
  20. Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G. A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: a clinician’s guide. London: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. *Bränström, R., Kvillemo, P., Brandberg, Y., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2010). Self-report mindfulness as a mediator of psychological well-being in a stress reduction intervention for cancer patients—a randomized study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39(2), 151–161. doi: 10.1007/s12160-010-9168-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. *Brewer, J. A., Sinha, R., Chen, J. A., Michalsen, R. N., Babuscio, T. A., Nich, C., et al. (2009). Mindfulness training and stress reactivity in substance abuse: results from a randomized, controlled stage I pilot study. Substance Abuse, 30(4), 306–317. doi: 10.1080/08897070903250241.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 242–248. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bph078.Google Scholar
  25. *Brown, K. W., West, A. M., Loverich, T. M., & Biegel, G. M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: validation of an adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/a0021338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Buchheld, N., Grossman, P., & Walach, H. (2001). Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: the development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research, 1(1), 11–34. Retrieved from Scholar
  27. *Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(1), 23–33. doi: 10.1007/s10865-007-9130-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. *Carmody, J., Crawford, S., & Churchill, L. (2006). A pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction for hot flashes. Menopause, 13(5), 760–769. doi: 10.1097/01.gme.0000227402.98933.d0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. *Carmody, J., Reed, G., Kristeller, J., & Merriam, P. (2008). Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms. Journal of Psychosomatic research, 64(4), 393–403. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.06.015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. *Carmody, J., Baer, R. A., Lykins, L. B., & Olendzki, N. (2009). An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of clinical psychology, 65(6), 613–626. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chadwick, P., Barnbrook, E., & Newman-Taylor, K. (2007). Responding mindfully to distressing voices: links with meaning, affect and relationship with voice. Journal of the Norwegian Psychological Association, 44, 581–588. Retrieved from Scholar
  32. Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Symes, J., Peters, E., Kuipers, E., & Dagnan, D. (2008). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(4), 451–455. doi: 10.1348/014466508X3114891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. *Chadwick, P., Hughes, S., Russell, D., Russell, I., & Dagnan, D. (2009). Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia: a replication and randomized feasibility trial. Behav Cogn Psychother, 37(4), 403–412. doi: 10.1017/S1352465809990166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chiesa, A., & Malinowski, P. (2011). Mindfulness-based approaches: are they all the same? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(4), 1–21. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20776.Google Scholar
  35. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. *Cohen-Katz, J., Wiley, S. D., Capuano, T., Baker, D. M., & Shapiro, S. (2005). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on nurse stress and burnout, part II: a quantitative and qualitative study. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19(1), 26–35. Retrieved from Scholar
  37. *Collard, P., Avny, N., & Boniwell, I. (2008). Teaching mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) to students: the effects of MBCT on the levels of mindfulness and subjective well-being. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 21(4), 323–336. doi: 10.1080/09515070802602112.Google Scholar
  38. *Cusens, B., Duggan, G. B., Thorne, K., & Burch, V. (2010). Evaluation of the breathworks mindfulness based pain management programme: effects on well being and multiple measures of mindfulness. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(1), 63–78. doi: 10.1002/cpp.653.Google Scholar
  39. *Dalen, J., Smith, B. W., Shelley, B. M., Sloan, A. L., Leahigh, L., & Begay, D. (2010). Pilot study: Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL): weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 18(6), 260–264. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2010.09.008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. *Deyo, M., Wilson, K. A., Ong, J., & Koopman, C. (2009). Mindfulness and rumination: does mindfulness training lead to reductions in the ruminative thinking associated with depression? Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 5(5), 265–271. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2009.06.005.Google Scholar
  41. *Dobkin, P. L. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction: what processes are at work? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(1), 8–16. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2007.09.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. *Duncan, L. G., & Bardacke, N. (2010). Mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting education: promoting family mindfulness during the perinatal period. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 190–202. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9313-7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174–189. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0101-x.Google Scholar
  44. *Eisendrath, S. J., Delucchi, K., Bitner, R., Fenimore, P., Smit, M., & McLane, M. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for treatment-resistant depression: a pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77(5), 319–320. doi: 10.1159/000142525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. *Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., & Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 716–721. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. *Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Carr, C., & Haglin, D. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and distress in a community based sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi: 10.1002/cpp.727. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  47. Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177–190. doi: 10.1007/s10862-006-9035-8.Google Scholar
  48. Fennell, M., & Segal, Z. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: culture clash or creative fusion? Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 125–142. doi: 10.1080/14639947.2011.564828.Google Scholar
  49. *Foley, E., Baillie, A., Huxter, M., Price, M., & Sinclair, E. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for individuals whose lives have been affected by cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(1), 72. doi: 10.1037/a0017566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H. M., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., et al. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 234–246. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003.Google Scholar
  51. *Frewen, P. A., Evans, E. M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D. J. A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(6), 758–774. doi: 10.1007/s10608-007-9142-1.Google Scholar
  52. Garland, E., & Gaylord, S. (2009). Envisioning a future contemplative science of mindfulness: fruitful methods and new content for the next wave of research. Complementary Health Practice Review, 14(1), 3–9. doi: 10.1177/1533210109333718.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. *Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., Boettiger, C. A., & Howard, M. O. (2010). Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 42(2), 177–192. Retrieved from Scholar
  54. Gilbert, B. D., & Christopher, M. S. (2010). Mindfulness-based attention as a moderator of the relationship between depressive affect and negative cognitions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(6), 514–521. doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9282-6.Google Scholar
  55. Gilpin, R. (2008). The use of Theravāda Buddhist practices and perspectives in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Contemporary Buddhism, 9(2), 227–251. doi: 10.1080/14639940802556560.Google Scholar
  56. *Gökhan, N., Meehan, E. F., & Peters, K. (2010). The value of mindfulness-based methods in teaching at a clinical field placement. Psychological Reports, 106(2), 455–466. doi: 10.2466/PR0.106.2.455-466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. *Gross, C., Kreitzer, M., Thomas, W., Reilly-Spong, M., Cramer-Bornemann, M., Nyman, J., et al. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for solid organ transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 16(5), 30–38. Retrieved from
  58. Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. T. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(01), 219–239. doi: 10.1080/14639947.2011.564841.Google Scholar
  59. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 4(35), 639–665. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7894(04)80013-3.Google Scholar
  60. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  61. Higgins, J., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal, 327(7414), 557–560. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 78(2), 169. doi: 10.1037/a0018555.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. *Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., et al. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 36–43. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006.
  64. *Huppert, F. A., & Johnson, D. M. (2010). A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: the importance of practice for an impact on well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 264–274. doi: 10.1080/17439761003794148.Google Scholar
  65. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. How to cope with stress, pain and illness using mindfulness meditation. Wiltshire: Antony Rowe.Google Scholar
  66. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.Google Scholar
  67. *Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): a new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 334–356.Google Scholar
  68. Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Research design in clinical psychology (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  69. Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. *Kimbrough, E., Magyari, T., Langenberg, P., Chesney, M., & Berman, B. (2010). Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 17–33. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. *Kingston, J., Chadwick, P., Meron, D., & Skinner, T. C. (2007). A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62(3), 297–300. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.10.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. *Klatt, M. D., Buckworth, J., & Malarkey, W. B. (2009). Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working adults. Health Education & Behavior, 36(3), 601–614. doi: 10.1177/1090198108317627.Google Scholar
  73. *Kocovski, N. L., Fleming, J. E., & Rector, N. A. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy for social anxiety disorder: an open trial. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(3), 276–289. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.12.004.Google Scholar
  74. Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(10), 877–883. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.10.877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. *Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., et al. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1284. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1384.
  76. Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., et al. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(11), 1105–1112. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.003.
  77. *Labelle, L., Campbell, T., & Carlson, L. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in oncology: evaluating mindfulness and rumination as mediators of change in depressive symptoms. Mindfulness, 1(1), 28–40. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0005-6.Google Scholar
  78. *Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., et al. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1468. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20326.Google Scholar
  79. Lavender, J. M., Jardin, B. F., & Anderson, D. A. (2009). Bulimic symptoms in undergraduate men and women: contributions of mindfulness and thought suppression. Eating Behaviors, 10(4), 228–231. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.07.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Linehan, M. M., & Dexter-Mazza, E. T. (2008). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders, fourth edition: a step-by-step treatment manual. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  81. *Lovas, D. A., & Barsky, A. J. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for hypochondriasis, or severe health anxiety: a pilot study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8), 931–935. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. *Matchim, Y., Armer, J. M., & Stewart, B. R. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on health among breast cancer survivors. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 33(8), 1–21. doi: 10.1177/0193945910385363. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  83. *Matousek, R. H., & Dobkin, P. L. (2010). Weathering storms: a cohort study of how participation in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program benefits women after breast cancer treatment. Current Oncology, 17(4), 62–70. Retrieved from Scholar
  84. McCracken, L., & Thompson, M. (2009). Components of mindfulness in patients with chronic pain. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(2), 75–82. doi: 10.1007/s10862-008-9099-8.Google Scholar
  85. *Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Meibert, P., & Schulte, D. (2008). Mindfulness predicts relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(8), 630–633. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31817d0546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. *Morone, N. E., Rollman, B. L., Moore, C. G., Qin, L., & Weiner, D. K. (2009). A mind–body program for older adults with chronic low back pain: results of a pilot study. Pain medicine, 10(8), 1395–1407. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00746.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. *Mularski, R. A., Munjas, B. A., Lorenz, K. A., Sun, S., Robertson, S. J., Schmelzer, W., et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based therapy for dyspnea in chronic obstructive lung disease. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(10), 1083–1090. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0037.
  88. Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2(3), 223–250. doi: 10.1080/15298860309027.Google Scholar
  89. *Nyklíček, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 331–340. doi: 10.1007/s12160-008-9030-2.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. *Oken, B. S., Fonareva, I., Haas, M., Wahbeh, H., Lane, J. B., Zajdel, D., et al. (2010). Pilot controlled trial of mindfulness meditation and education for dementia caregivers. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(10), 1031–1038. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0733.Google Scholar
  91. *Ong, J. C., Shapiro, S. L., & Manber, R. (2008). Combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia: a treatment-development study. Behavior Therapy, 39(2), 171–182. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2007.07.002.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. *Ong, J. C., Shapiro, S. L., & Manber, R. (2009). Mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a naturalistic 12-month follow-up. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 5(1), 30–36. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2008.10.004.Google Scholar
  93. *Ortner, C. N. M., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271–283. doi: 10.1007/s11031-007-9076-7.Google Scholar
  94. *Pradhan, E. K., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A. K., Magyari, T., et al. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care & Research, 57(7), 1134–1142. doi: 10.1002/art.23010.Google Scholar
  95. *Raes, F., Dewulf, D., Van Heeringen, C., & Williams, J. M. G. (2009). Mindfulness and reduced cognitive reactivity to sad mood: evidence from a correlational study and a non-randomized waiting list controlled study. Behaviour research and therapy, 47(7), 623–627. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.03.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rapgay, L., & Bystrisky, A. (2009). Classical mindfulness. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172(1), 148–162. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04405.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rasmussen, M. K., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2010). The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(2), 227–233. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2010.515681.Google Scholar
  98. *Ree, M. J., & Craigie, M. A. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behaviour Change, 24(2), 70–86. doi: 10.1375/bech.24.2.70.Google Scholar
  99. *Rimes, K. A., & Wingrove, J. (2011). Pilot study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for trainee clinical psychologists. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39(02), 235–241. doi: 10.1017/S1352465810000731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. *Sachse, S., Keville, S., & Feigenbaum, J. (2010). A feasibility study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for individuals with borderline personality disorder. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 84(2), 1–17. doi: 10.1348/147608310X516387.
  101. Sanders, W. A., & Lam, D. H. (2010). Ruminative and mindful self-focused processing modes and their impact on problem solving in dysphoric individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(8), 747–753. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., et al. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3–17. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0122-5.Google Scholar
  103. *Schmidt, S., Grossman, P., Schwarzer, B., Jena, S., Naumann, J., & Walach, H. (2010). Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial. Pain, 152(2), 361–369. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.10.043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. *Schroevers, M. J., & Brandsma, R. (2010). Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy? British Journal of Psychology, 101(1), 95–107. doi: 10.1348/000712609X424195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Schulze, R. (2004). Meta-analysis: a comparison of approaches. Cambridge: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  106. Schütze, R., Rees, C., Preece, M., & Schütze, M. (2010). Low mindfulness predicts pain catastrophizing in a fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Pain, 148(1), 120–127. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.10.030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  108. Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance. Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. London: Guilford.Google Scholar
  109. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression (2nd ed.). London: Guilford.Google Scholar
  110. *Shahar, B., Britton, W. B., Sbarra, D. A., Figueredo, A. J., & Bootzin, R. R. (2010). Mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: preliminary evidence from a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3(4), 402–418. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2010.3.4.402.Google Scholar
  111. Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2009). The art and science of mindfulness: integrating mindfulness into psychology and the helping professions. Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  112. *Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 105–115. doi: 10.1037/1931-3918.1.2.105.Google Scholar
  113. *Shapiro, S. L., Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Plante, T. G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Cultivating mindfulness: effects on well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(7), 840–862. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. *Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., Thoresen, C., & Plante, T. G. (2011). The moderation of mindfulness-based stress reduction effects by trait mindfulness: results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 267–277. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. *Sharplin, G. R., Jones, S. B. W., Hancock, B., Knott, V. E., Bowden, J. A., & Whitford, H. S. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: an efficacious community-based group intervention for depression and anxiety in a sample of cancer patients. The Medical Journal of Australia, 193(5), S79–S82. Retrieved from Scholar
  116. *Smith, B. W., Shelley, B. M., Leahigh, L., & Vanleit, B. (2006). A preliminary study of the effects of a modified mindfulness intervention on binge eating. Complementary Health Practice Review, 11(3), 133–143. doi: 10.1177/1533210106297217.Google Scholar
  117. *Smith, B. W., Shelley, B. M., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., & Bernard, J. (2008). A pilot study comparing the effects of mindfulness-based and cognitive-behavioral stress reduction. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(3), 251–258. doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.0641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. *Splevins, K., Smith, A., & Simpson, J. (2009). Do improvements in emotional distress correlate with becoming more mindful? A study of older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 13(3), 328–335. doi: 10.1080/13607860802459807.Google Scholar
  119. Sterne, J. A. C., Sutton, A. J., Ioannidis, J., Terrin, N., Jones, D. R., Lau, J., et al. (2011). Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ, 343, 1–8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4002.Google Scholar
  120. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615–623. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.68.4.615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thalheimer, W., & Cook, S. (2002). How to calculate effect sizes from published research: a simplified methodology. Retrieved from .
  122. Van Dam, N. T., Sheppard, S. C., Forsyth, J. P., & Earleywine, M. (2010). Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. Journal of anxiety disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. *Vieten, C., & Astin, J. (2008). Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy on prenatal stress and mood: results of a pilot study. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11(1), 67–74. doi: 10.1007/s00737-008-0214-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. *Vieten, C., Astin, J. A., Buscemi, R., & Galloway, G. P. (2010). Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention. Substance Abuse, 31(2), 108–116. doi: 10.1080/08897071003641594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. *Vøllestad, J., Sivertsen, B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(4), 281–288. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.01.007.Google Scholar
  126. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006a). Measuring mindfulness—the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1543–1555. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.025.Google Scholar
  127. Walach, H., Falkenberg, T., Fonnebo, V., Lewith, G., & Jonas, W. (2006b). Circular instead of hierarchical: methodological principles for the evaluation of complex interventions. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 6(1), 29. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-6-29.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. *Weber, B., Jermann, F., Gex-Fabry, M., Nallet, A., Bondolfi, G., & Aubry, J. M. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder: a feasibility trial. European Psychiatry, 25(6), 334–337. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.03.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. *Witek-Janusek, L., Albuquerque, K., Chroniak, K. R., Chroniak, C., Durazo-Arvizu, R., & Mathews, H. L. (2008). Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22(6), 969–981. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.01.012.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. *Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., Zuelsdorff, M., Coe, C., Miller, M., & Fleming, M. (2008). Mindfulness meditation for alcohol relapse prevention: a feasibility pilot study. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2(3), 165–173. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e31816f8546.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Endre Visted
    • 1
  • Jon Vøllestad
    • 2
  • Morten Birkeland Nielsen
    • 3
  • Geir Høstmark Nielsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Solli District Psychiatric CentreBergenNorway
  3. 3.National Institute of Occupational HealthOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations