Measuring Mindfulness: First Steps Towards the Development of a Comprehensive Mindfulness Scale
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- Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W. & Kupper, Z. Mindfulness (2013) 4: 18. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0102-9
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The present study describes the development of and results obtained from the first version of a new mindfulness scale: the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences beta (CHIME-β). The aim of the present analysis was to investigate two relevant open questions in mindfulness assessment: (1) the coverage of aspects of mindfulness and (2) the type of interrelationships among these aspects. A review of the aspects of mindfulness assessed by eight currently available mindfulness questionnaires led to the identification of nine aspects of mindfulness. The CHIME-β was constructed in order to cover each of these aspects in a balanced way. Initially, principal component and confirmatory factor analyses, as well as reliability and validity analyses, were performed in the entire sample (n = 313) of individuals from the general population and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) groups. The factor structure that emerged from this analysis was further investigated in meditation-trained individuals (n = 144) who had just completed an MBSR intervention. Results suggested a four-factor structure underlying the nine aspects proposed. The relationship between these mindfulness factors appears to be influenced by the degree of meditation experience. In fact, the mindfulness factors showed a greater interconnectedness among mediation-trained participants. Finally, data suggest that a non-avoidant stance plays a central role in mindfulness, while the capacity to put inner experiences into words may be related to mindfulness rather than a component of the construct.