Mindfulness

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 183–188

The Short-Term Impact of a Brief Group-Based Mindfulness Therapy Program on Depression and Life Satisfaction

  • Paul H. Harnett
  • Koa Whittingham
  • Elizabeth Puhakka
  • Julie Hodges
  • Carmen Spry
  • Rian Dob
Original Paper

Abstract

The teaching of mindfulness skills is a central component of a number of therapies and has been successful in improving the functioning of individuals suffering from a range of clinical problems. Despite the apparent benefits of mindfulness skills training, most studies to date have targeted clinical samples with the aim of reducing specific symptomatology or general psychological distress. We evaluated a brief (three-session) group-based mindfulness training intervention with a community sample with the aim of enhancing life satisfaction or decreasing psychological distress. In addition, we aimed to determine whether any benefits would be associated with increases on a measure of mindfulness. Results showed that the intervention was successful in decreasing psychological distress and improving life satisfaction and that these benefits were observed in individuals who reported an increase on a measure of mindfulness. Overall, the results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention can be beneficial for individuals in the community who may not be suffering serious symptoms of psychological distress but are aiming to derive a greater sense of life satisfaction.

Keywords

Mindfulness Depression Life satisfaction Emotional well-being Group therapy 

References

  1. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 10(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer, S., Lambert, M. J., & Nielsen, S. L. (2004). Clinical significance methods: A comparison of statistical techniques. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(1), 60–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science Practice, 11(3), 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. M., Chawla, N., Simpson, T. L., Ostafin, B. D., et al. (2006). Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 343–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchner, A., Erdfelder, E., & Faul, F. (1997). How to use G*Power. http://www.psycho.uni-duesseldorf.de/aap/projects/gpower/how_to_use_gpower.html
  7. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 23–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2009). How long does a mindfulness-based stress reduction program need to be? A review of class contact hours and effect sizes for psychological distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 627–638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Coelho, H. F., Canter, P. H., & Ernst, E. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Evaluating current evidence and informing future research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(6), 1000–1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Foley, E., Baillie, A., Huxter, M., & Price, M. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for individuals whose lives have been affected by cancer: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(1), 72–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2003). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobson, N. S., & Traux, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 12–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 11–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness: Fifteenth Anniversary Edition. New York: Delta Trade Paperback/Bantam Dell.Google Scholar
  18. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L. G., Flectcher, K. E., Pbert, L., et al. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(7), 936–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kristeller, J. L., & Hallett, C. B. (1999). An exploratory study of a meditation-based intervention for binge eating disorder. Journal of Health Psychology, 4(3), 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lengacher, C. A., Johnson-Mallard, V., Post-White, J., Moscoso, M. S., Jacobsen, P. B., Klein, T. W., et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress (MBSR) for survivors for breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 18, 1261–1272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety and stress scales, 2nd edition. Sydney: NSW: Psychology Foundation of Australia.Google Scholar
  24. Ma, S. H., & Teasdale, J. D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 31–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 433–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scherer-Dickson, N. (2004). Current developments of metacognitive concepts and their clinical implications: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  28. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Adkins, A. D., Singh, A. N., & Singh, J. (2010). Mindfulness-based approaches. In J. L. Taylor, W. R. Lindsay, R. Hastings, & C. Hatton (Eds.), Psychological therapies for adults with intellectual disabilities. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615–623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vowles, K. E., Wetherell, J. L., & Sorrell, J. T. (2009). Targeting acceptance, mindfulness and valued-based action in chronic pain: findings of two preliminary trials of an outpatient group-based intervention. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Witkiewitz, K., & Bowen, S. (2010). Depression, craving, and substance use following a randomized trial of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(3), 362–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Witkiewitz, K., Marlatt, G. A., & Walker, D. (2005). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for alcohol and substance use disorders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19(3), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul H. Harnett
    • 1
  • Koa Whittingham
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Puhakka
    • 1
  • Julie Hodges
    • 1
  • Carmen Spry
    • 1
  • Rian Dob
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations