Advertisement

Mindfulness

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 199–203 | Cite as

The Relationship between Mindfulness and Uncontrollability of Ruminative Thinking

  • Filip Raes
  • J. Mark G. Williams
Original Paper

Abstract

Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the relationship between naturally occurring levels of mindfulness and rumination in students (n = 164). As predicted, we found that, when controlling for current depressive symptoms and prior history of depression, mindfulness was significantly negatively correlated with rumination, but it was only associated with the extent to which rumination was experienced as uncontrollable, not with global levels of rumination. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between global levels of rumination and uncontrollability of rumination, consistent with the suggestion that high dispositional mindfulness reduces the extent to which ruminative reactions tend to escalate into self-perpetuating and uncontrollable ruminative cycles.

Keywords

Mindfulness Rumination Depression 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A., & Smith, G. T. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-2. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Conway, M., Csank, P. A. R., Holm, S. L., & Blake, C. K. (2000). On assessing individual differences in rumination on sadness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75, 404–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dekeyser, M., Raes, F., Leijssen, M., Leysen, S., & Dewulf, D. (2008). Mindfulness and interpersonal behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1235–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Godfrin, K.A., van Heeringen, C. (2010) The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on recurrence of depressive episodes, mental health and quality of life: A randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy doi:  10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.006.
  9. Kuyken, W., Byford, S., Taylor, R. S., Watkins, E., Holen, E., White, K., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 966–978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ma, S. H., & Teasdale, J. D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 31–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. McLaughlin, K., Sibrava, N., Behar, E., & Borkovec, T. D. (2006). Recurrent negative thinking in emotional disorders: Worry, depressive rumination, and trauma recall. In S. Sassaroli & G. Ruggerio (Eds.), Worry, need of control, and other core cognitive constructs in anxiety and eating disorders (pp. 37–67). Milan: Raphael Cortina Publisher.Google Scholar
  12. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2004). Nature, functions, and beliefs about depressive rumination. In C. Papageorgiou & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 3–20). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Raes, F., Dewulf, D., Van Heeringen, C., & Williams, J. M. G. (2009). Mindfulness and reduced cognitive reactivity to sad mood: Evidence from a correlational study and a non-randomized waiting list controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 623–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Raes, F., Hermans, D., Williams, J. M. G., Bijttebier, P., & Eelen, P. (2008). A “triple W”-model of rumination on sadness: Why am I feeling sad, what’s the meaning of my sadness, and wish I could stop thinking about my sadness (but I can’t). Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 526–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach for preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Van der Does, A. J. W. (2002). Handleiding bij de Nederlandse bewerking van de BDI-II [Manual of the Dutch version of the BDI-II]. San Antonio, TX/Lisse, the Netherlands: The Psychological Corporation/Swets Test Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Van der Does, A. J. W., Barnhofer, T., & Williams, J. M. G. (2003). The Major Depression Questionnaire (MDQ). www.dousa.nl/publications.
  20. Watkins, E. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 163–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Watkins, E., & Teasdale, J. D. (2001). Rumination and overgeneral memory in depression: Effects of self-focus and analytic thinking. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 353–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Williams, J. M. G., Van der Does, A. J. W., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., & Segal, Z. V. (2008). Cognitive reactivity, suicidal ideation and future fluency: Investigating a differential activation theory of suicidality. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations