Terminalia belerica Mediated Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles of Copper, Iron and Zinc Metal Oxides as the Alternate Antibacterial Agents Against some Common Pathogens

  • Syed Md Humayun Akhter
  • Faiz MohammadEmail author
  • Shamim Ahmad


The present work aims at the green synthesis of metal oxides of zinc, iron, and copper using the aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica as a reductant and stabilizer. The entire reaction process was simple, cost-effective, and convenient to handle without use of any other stabilizing or reducing agents. The successful formation of the metal oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. For thus-prepared nanoparticles were characterized, a series of techniques were employed including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We used these nanoparticles to demonstrate their antibacterial efficacy against some common standard bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-6538), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441), Escherichia coli (ATCC-8739), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC-43816), and Salmonella enterica (MTCC-3858). The results indicate that these metal oxide nanoparticles may become a potential candidate for use in biological and pharmaceutical areas to fight against multi-drug resistant superbugs.


Antibacterial efficacy Copper oxide nanoparticles Iron oxide nanoparticles Zinc oxide nanoparticles Terminalia belerica 



The author acknowledges one of the colleagues Mr. Vasiuddin Siddiqui (Jamia Millia Islamia) who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research. The USIF of AMU for HRTEM and SEM is thankfully acknowledged.

Funding Information

This work received support from the UGC in the form of Maulana Azad National Fellowship for Minority Students.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Md Humayun Akhter
    • 1
  • Faiz Mohammad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shamim Ahmad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryZakir Husain College of Engineering and TechnologyAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Ophthalmology (Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College)Aligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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